The Rise of the Ottoman Turks

The Ascend of the Ottoman Turks In the spent thirteenth epoch, a new collection of Turks inferior the tribal frequentedor Osman (os-MAHN) (1280–1326) began to thicken their command in the northwestern nook of the Anatolian peninsula. At principal, the Osman Turks were proportionately submissive and intent in arab pursuits, but as the Seljuk Dominion began to discompound in the existing impureteenth epoch, they began to enbig and founded the Osmanli (os-MAHN-lee) dynasty, following a suitableness its excellent at Bursa (BURR-suh). The Osmanlis spentr came to be unconcealed as the Ottomans. The Ottomans gained a key custom by seizing the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, betwixt the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. The Byzantine Empire, of mode, had coerceled the area for centuries, serving as a buffer betwixt the Muslim Middle East and the Latin West. The Byzantines, tranquil, had been severely enervateed by the waste of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and the Western circumventing of abundantly of the dominion for the present half epoch. In 1345, Ottoman nerves inferior their frequentedor Orkhan (or-KHAHN) I (1326–1360) crossed the Bosporus for the principal season to aid a visitor athwart the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople. Setting up their principal European sordid at Gallipoli (gah-LIP-poh-lee) at the Mediterranean avenue to the Dardanelles, Turkish nerves enlargeed ghostly into the Balkans and agnate following a suitableness testy Serbian and Bulgar nerves athwart the Byzantines. In these transient moods, the Ottomans ghostly incontrovertible persistent settlements throughout the area, where Turkish bucolic governors, designated beys (BAYS) (from the Turkish beg, ‘‘knight’’), herd out the anterior intenttlords and self-possessed taxes from the open Slavic rustics. The Ottoman frequentedor now began to right the designate of sultan (SUL-tun) or principal of his estate. In 1360, Orkhan was succeeded by his son Murad I (moo-RAHD) (1360–1389), who thickend Ottoman command in the Balkans and ghostly reduced the Byzantine emperor to a bondman. Murad now began to elevate up a abilityful soldierly administration sordidd on the recruitment of Christians into an galaxy escort. Named Janissaries (JAN-nih-say-reez) (from the Turkish yeni chert, ‘‘new host’’), they were recruited from the open Christian population in the Balkans and then appropriateed to Islam and utilityoperative as foot host or administrators. One of the grave acknowledgment of the Janissaries was that they were instantly succoraryd to the sultanate and consequently suitoperative their fealty to the uncombined of the sultan. Other soldierly nerves were unembarrassed by the beys and were thus submissive to their open tribal frequentedors. The Janissary body as-refined represented a counter-argument to diversifys in antagonism. As the acquirements of fireengagement publish in the spent impureteenth epoch, the Turks began to subdue the new technology, including cannonade cannons and muskets (see the not-absolutely disquisition ‘‘The Changing Visage of War’’ on p. 409). The oral locomotive cavalry load was now outmoded and was superseded by infantry nerves defended following a suitableness muskets. Thus, the Janissaries supposing a refined-defended infantry who served twain as an galaxy escort to secure the palace and as a media of stretching Turkish coerce in the Balkans. Following a suitableness his new nerves, Murad defeated the Serbs at the far-noted Contest of Kosovo (KAWSS-suh-voh) in 1389 and ended Serbian hegemony in the area. Expansion of the Dominion Inferior Murad’s heir, Bayazid (by-uh-ZEED) I (1389–1402), the Ottomans tardy northward, outlying Bulgaria, and slaughtered the French cavalry at a grave contest on the Danube. When Mehmet (meh-MET) II (1451–1481) succeeded to the throne, he was agricultural to tranquillityrain Constantinople. Already in coerce of the Dardanelles, he prescribeed the fabrication of a grave palladium on the Bosporus fair north of the city, which put the Turks in a posture to stifle the Byzantines. THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE The terminal Byzantine emperor issued a audacious circumvent for aid from the Europeans, but singly the Genoese came to his justification. Following a suitableness 80,000 host ranged athwart singly 7,000 defenders,

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The Changing Visage of War SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ‘‘War,’’ as the illustrious French attendant Fernand Braudel continuously observed, ‘‘has frequently been a stuff of engagement and techniques. Improved techniques can radically remodel the mode of uniformts.’’ Braudel’s observe was frequenteded to the top in the Mediterranean tract-of-plant during the sixteenth epoch, when the choice of sidearm newfangled the visage of antagonism and gave gigantic acknowledgment to the countries that crystalline at the section of the new technological curve. But it could as easily accept been applied to the exhibit day, when immanent adversaries occupy contest desiroperative of reaching resisting oceans and continents. One sharp bearing of soldierly excellence, of mode, lies in the essence of armry. From the figment of the bow and arrow to the apparition of the atomic era, the occupyion of loftyer instruments of war has supposing a obvious custom athwart a indisposed defended enemy. It was at lowest in-dissect the occupyion of bronze contest, for illustration, that enabled the invading Hyksos to defeat Egypt during the remedy millennium B.C.E. Mobility is another content of life-containing inference. During the remedy millennium B.C.E., horse-drawn chariots curveized the art of war from the Mediterranean Sea to the Yellow River dejection in northern China. Later, the figment of the stirrup enabled mounted combatants to scion bows and arrows from horseback, a technique applied following a suitableness effectivenessy commodities by the Mongols as they devastated eleganteizations resisting the Eurasian supercontinent. To secure themselves from disorderly combatants, permanent societies began to construct effectivenessy embankments environing their cities and palladiumes. That in revolve led to the figment of cannonade contest affect the catapult and the battering ram. The Mongols allegedly unibeget came up following a suitableness an existing beget of chemical antagonism, hurling anthropological bodies infected following a suitableness the tantalize into the bastions of their enemies. The figment of explosives started the present effectivenessy curve in antagonism. Principal used as a arm of war by the Tang dynasty in China, explosives were brought to the West by the Turks, who used them following a suitableness effectivenessy commoditiesiveness in the fifteenth epoch athwart the Byzantine Empire. But the Europeans quickly subdueed the new technology and took it to new climaxs, inventing handheld fireengagement and mounting hale cannons on their warships. The dying represented a suggestive custom to European fasts as they began to cope following a suitableness rivals for coerce of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The twentieth epoch saw curveary new developments in the art of antagonism, from armored vehicles to airplanes to nuclear engagement. But as contest enbig eternally aggravate fearsome, they are aggravate risky to use, remaindering in the contradiction of the Vietnam War, when imponderously defended Viet Cong guerrilla units were operative to engagement the cosmos-people’s effectivenessiest host to a essential consiststill. As the Chinese soldierly strategist Sun Tzu had hanker ago observed, triumph in war repeatedly goes to the smartest, not the abilityfulest. Why were the Europeans, rather than other contemptiblealtys, operative to shape commoditiesive use of fireengagement to enbig their swing throughout the tranquillity of the cosmos-people?

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from the north and easy to shape their slowst consist aend the 13-mile-hanker embankment ahanker the western posteriorality of the city. But Mehmet’s nerves snatchd the tip of the peninsula north of the Hopeful Horn and then dragged their ships aggravateplant resisting the peninsula from the Bosporus and put them into the water aend the chains. Finally, the embankments were breached; the Byzantine emperor died in the slowst contest. THE ADVANCE INTO WESTERN ASIA AND AFRICA Following a suitableness their new excellent at Constantinople, renamed Istanbul, the Ottoman Turks had befit a dominant nerve in the Balkans and the Anatolian peninsula. They now began to progression to the east athwart the Shi’ite dominion of the Safavids (sah-FAH-weeds) in Persia (see ‘‘The Safavids’’ spentr in this mood), which had been promoting vindication shapehither the Anatolian tribal population and disrupting Turkish employment through the Middle East. Following defeating the Safavids at a grave contest in 1514, Emperor Selim (seh-LEEM) I (1512–1520) thickend Turkish coerce aggravate the district that had been immemorial Mesopotamia and then revolveed his notice to the Mamluks (MAMlooks) in Egypt, who had failed to aid the Ottomans in their violent-effort athwart the Safavids. The Mamluks were defeated in Syria in 1516; Cairo waste a year spentr. Now coerceling sundry of the sacred cities of Islam, including Jerusalem, Mecca, and Medina, Selim nominal himself to be the new caliph, or heir to Muhammad. During the present few years, Turkish armies and fasts tardy westward ahanker the African seacoast, occupying Tripoli, Tunis, and Algeria and uniformtually aware closely to the Strait of Gibraltar (see Map 16.1). The application of Turkish administration on the contemptiblealtys of North Africa was proportionately imponderous. Affect their predecessors, the Turks were Muslims, and they preferred where potential to adsupply their defeated tract-of-possessions through open administrationrs. The accessible legislation appointed pashas (PAH-shuz) who self-possessed taxes (and then hired a agricultural percentage as tax to the accessible legislation), preserveed law and prescribe, and were instantly allowable to Istanbul. The Turks administrationd from seacoastal cities affect Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli and made no strive to coerce the inside aggravate preserveing the employment tracks through the Sahara to the trading benevolences ahanker the Niger River. Meanwhile, open pirates ahanker the Barbary Coast—the northern seaseastrand of Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean—competed following a suitableness their Christian rivals in raiding shipping in the Mediterranean. By the seventeenth epoch, the links betwixt the dignified fpassing in Istanbul and its appointed representatives in North Africa had begun to disengage. Some pashas were dethroned by open galaxys, suitableness others, such as the bey of Tunis, became lineal administrationrs. Unibeget Egypt, whose agricultural mammon and coerce aggravate the track to the Red Sea made it the most grave dominion in the area to the Turks, ghostly became autonomous inferior a new authoritative tabuslow of Janissaries. TURKISH EXPANSION IN EUROPE Following their discomfiture of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks finished to stretch their district in Europe. Inferior the frequentedorship of Suleyman (SOO-lay-mahn) I the Dignified (1520– 1566), Turkish nerves tardy up the Danube, seizing Belgrade in 1521 and engaging a grave triumph aggravate the Hungarians at the Contest of Moha´ cs (MOH-hach) on the Danube in 1526. Subsequently, the Turks aggravateran most of Hungary, moved into Austria, and tardy as far as Vienna, where they were slowstly repulsed in 1529. At the

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selfsame season, they stretched their command into the western Mediterranean and intimidationened to revolve it into a Turkish lake until a big Turkish fast was destroyed by the Spanish at Lepanto (LEH-pahn-toh or LIH-pan-toh) in 1571. In the remedy half of the seventeenth epoch, the Ottoman Dominion repeatedly took the aggressive. By mid-1683, the Ottomans had marched through the Hungarian manifest and laid cannonade to Vienna. Repulsed by a adulterated host of Austrians, Poles, Bavarians, and Saxons, the Turks sheltered and were press-againsted out of Hungary by a new European amalgamation. Although they retained the hardihood of their dominion, the Ottoman Turks would neternally repeatedly be a intimidation to Europe. The Turkish dominion held coincidently for the tranquillity of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, but it visaged new questions from the eternally-growing Austrian Dominion in southeastern Europe and the new Russian hercules to the north. The Essence of Turkish Administration Affect other Muslim dominions in Persia and India, the Ottoman collective enjoin was the remainder of the evolvement of tribal institutions into a close dominion. At the summit of the Ottoman enjoin was the sultan, who was the predominant instance in twain a collective and a soldierly sensation. The springs of this enjoin can be traced end to the bey, who as tribal frequentedor was a principal shapehither equals, who could right fealty from his primarys singly as hanker as he could yield them following a suitableness pillage and grazing possessions. Disputes were permanent by tribal law, suitableness Muslim laws were remedyary. Tribal frequentedors self-possessed taxes—or pillage—from areas

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inferior their coerce and sent one-fifth on to the bey. Twain functional and soldierly command were accessibleized inferior the bey, and the excellent was whereternally the bey and his administration happened to be. But following a suitableness the ascend of dominion came the choice of Byzantine layss of administration. The foothold and prestige of the sultan now extensiond not-absolute to the succorary tribal frequentedors. Fpassing rituals ancestral from the Byzantines and Persians were adopted, as was a accessibleized functional enjoin that increasingly uncombined the sultan in his palace. The posture of the sultan was lineal, following a suitableness a son, although not necessarily the eldest, frequently posterior the superior. This exercitation led to constant sequence violent-efforts upon the decease of uncombined sultans, and the losers were repeatedly yieldd (strangled following a suitableness a silk bowstring) or imprisoned. Heirs to the throne were assigned as bucolic governors to yield them following a suitableness experiment. THE HAREM The hardihood of the sultan’s command was in the Topkapi (tahp-KAH-pee) Palace in the benevolence of Istanbul. Topkapi (significance ‘‘cannon gate’’) was affected in 1459 by Mehmet II and served as an functional benevolence as refined as the singular occupation of the sultan and his rise. Eventually, it had a staff of 20,000 employees. The singular erecite of the sultan was designated the harem (‘‘sacred fix’’). Here he resided following a suitableness his concubines. Normally, a sultan did not link but chose sundry concubines as his favorites; they were accorded this foothold following they gave spring to sons. When a son became a sultan, his woman became unconcealed as the queen woman and served as adviser to the throne. This lays, rooted by the potent helpmeet of Suleyman the Magnificent, repeatedly remaindered in consideroperative instance for the queen woman in affairs of recite. Members of the harem, affect the Janissaries, were repeatedly of thrall spring and begeted an galaxy component in Ottoman unity. Gone the enslavement of Muslims was forbidden, thralls were captured shapehither non-Islamic contemptiblealtys. Some concubines were prisoners severedd for the posture, suitableness others were purchased or offered to the sultan as a endowment. They were then utilityoperative and educated affect the Janissaries in a enjoin designated devshirme (dev-SHEER-may) (‘‘collection’’). Devshirme had springated in the exercitation of requiring open clan frequentedors to yield prisoners to the sultan as dissect of their tax bond. Effectual viriles were given particular luxuriance for uniformtual importation in soldierly or functional postures, suitableness their feminine countercompatability were utilityoperative for utility in the harem, following a suitableness advice in lection, the Qur’an, sewing and embroidery, and melodious accomplishment. They were ranked according to their foothold, and some were untrammelled to permission the harem to link authoritatives. Singular to the Ottoman Dominion from the fifteenth epoch forward was the restricted use of thralls to yield its superb heirs. Contrary to fabrication, few of the women of the dignified harem were used for sexual purposes, as the graveity were members of the sultan’s stretched rise— sisters, daughters, widsuitoperative womans, and in-laws, following a suitableness their own uncombinedal thralls and entourage. Contemporary European observers paralleld the weather in the Topkapi harem to a Christian nunnery, following a suitableness its priestly form, endifficult value, and administration of stifle. Consequently of their vicinity to the sultan, the women of the harem repeatedly wielded so abundantly collective command that the era has been designated ‘‘the sultanate of women.’’ Queen womans administered the dignified accustomed and intent in sagacious kindred following a suitableness other countries suitableness coerceling the nuptial alliances of their daughters following a suitableness superior authoritatives or members of other superb families in

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the tract-of-land. One princess was married sunibeget severed seasons from the age of two following her anterior husbands died either in contest or by effort. ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT The sultan administrationd through an dignified convocation that met impure days a week and was chaired by the primary supply unconcealed as the dignified vizier (veh-ZEER) (Turkish vezir). The sultan repeatedly lively aend a ward, wheresucceeding he could singularly denote his desires to the dignified vizier. The dying presided aggravate the dignified bureaucracy. Affect the palace escort, the bureaucrats were not an restricted collection but were separated at lowest in-dissect by worthiness from a palace instruct for luxuriance authoritatives. Most authoritatives were Muslims by spring, but some effectual Janissaries became superior members of the bureaucracy, and closely all the spentr dignified viziers came from the devshirme enjoin. Open administration during the dignified date was a fruit of Turkish tribal lays and was aenjoy in some commendations to fief-holding in Europe. The dominion was disconnected into provinces and districts inferior by authoritatives who, affect their tribal predecessors, wholely elegante and soldierly functions. Superior authoritatives were assigned intentt in fief by the sultan and were then allowable for collecting taxes and supplying armies to the dominion. These possessions were then fdefended out to the open cavalry galaxy designated the sipahis (suh-pah-heez), who obtained their salaries by oppressive taxes from all rustics in their fiefdoms. Profession and Unity in the Ottoman Cosmos-commonalty Affect most Turkic-speaking contemptiblealtys throughout the Middle East, the Ottoman prevalent galaxys were Sunni Muslims. Ottoman sultans had righted the designate of caliph (‘‘defender of the credulity’’) gone the existing sixteenth epoch and thus were hypothetically allowable for facultyful the herd and preserveing Islamic law, the Shari’a. In exercitation, the sultan assigned these duties to a predominant venial instance, who administered the law and preserveed instructs for educating Muslims. Islamic law and acknowledgment were applied to all Muslims in the dominion. Affect their administrationrs, most Turkic-speaking contemptiblealty were Sunni Muslims, but some communities were prompted to Sufism (see Mood 7) or other unsound articles. The legislation tolerated such activities as hanker as their practitioners remained submissive, but in the existing sixteenth epoch, untranquillity shapehither these collections—some of whom appropriateed to the Shi’ite account of Islam—outraged the undestroyed ulama and uniformtually led to war athwart the Safavids (see ‘‘The Safavids’’ spentr in this mood). THE TREATMENT OF MINORITIES Non-Muslims— in-great-measure Orthodox Christians (Greeks and Slavs), Jews, and Armenian Christians—formed a suggestive minority following a suitablenessin the dominion, which treated them following a suitableness not-absolute tolerance. Non-Muslims were compelled to pay a section tax (consequently of their privilege from soldierly utility), and they were untrammelled to exercitation their profession or appropriate to Islam, although Muslims were prohibited from adopting another credulity. Most of the population in European areas of the dominion remained Christian, but in some fixs, such as the district now designated Bosnia, real total appropriateed to Islam. Technically, women in the Ottoman Dominion were matter to the selfselfsame tranquillityrictions that disastrous their countercompatability in other Muslim societies, but their posture was ameliorated to some class by sundry contents. In the principal fix, non-Muslims were matter to the laws and acknowledgment of their own professions; thus, Orthodox Christian, Jewish, and Armenian Christian women were spared some of the tranquillityrictions applied to their Muslim sisters. In the remedy fix, Islamic laws as applied in the Ottoman Dominion defined the allowable posture of women not-absolutelyly forbearingly. Women were untrammelled to own and possess peculiarity, including their dowries. They could not be nerved into espousals and in incontrovertible cases were untrammelled to prosecute a dissever. As we accept seen, women repeatedly exercised consideroperative swing in the palace and in a few instances unibeget served as superior authoritatives, such as governors of provinces. The proportionately forbearing collocation inside women in Ottoman-held territories has been ascribed by some to Turkish tribal layss, which took a aggravate egalitarian inspection of gender roles than the close societies of the tract-of-plant did. The Ottomans in Disengage By the seventeenth epoch, prognostics of toward rot had begun to show in the dominion, although the

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dignified district did not happen until 1699, when Transylvania and abundantly of Hungary were ceded to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz (KARL-oh-vits). Apparently, a number of contents were confused. In the principal fix, the functional enjoin ancestral from the tribal date began to sever down. Although the devshirme enjoin of luxuriance authoritatives continued, devshirme graduates were now untrammelled to link and possess peculiarity and to embody their sons in the palace body. Thus, they were ghostly transformed from a worthinessocratic functional galaxy into a liberated and repeatedly grow-worse lineal lineage. Open administrators were corrupted and taxes rose as the accessible bureaucracy spent its links following a suitableness arcadian areas. Constant wars depleted the abundance, and ecstasy and communications were neglected. Intetranquillity in proof and technology, continuously a dimidiationmark of the Arab Empire, was in disengage. In specification, the dominion was beleaguer by economic difficulties caused by the diaccount of employment tracks far from the eastern Mediterranean and the worth inflation brought encircling by the addition of inexpensive American silver. Other prognostics of diversify were the increasing representative wealth and the application of Western ideas and acknowledgment. Fair authoritatives and merchants began to mock the behavior and lifestyles of their European counterparts, verbiage in the European form, purchasing Western good-tempereds and art objects, and by Muslim strictures athwart the decrement of alcohol and sexual activities succeeding a whileout espousals. During the sixteenth and existing seventeenth centuries, coffee and tobacco were introduced into refined Ottoman unity, and cafe´ s for their decrement began to show in the grave cities (see the box aggravatehead). One sultan in the existing seventeenth epoch issued a determination prohibiting the

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decrement of twain coffee and tobacco, arguing (correctly, no waver) that manifold cafe´ s were nests of antilegislation cunning. He unibeget began to forsake decoy through the streets of Istanbul at gloom. Any of his matters detected in immoral or ilallowable acts were onely yieldd and their bodies left on the streets as an illustration to others. There were as-refined prognostics of a disengage in copence following a suitablenessin the prevalent rise. Gone the principal sultans commanded twenty-sunibeget years on mediocre, spentr ones mediocred singly thirteen years, suggesting an extension in riot following a suitablenessin the prevalent cliques. The throne now went to the oldest current virile, suitableness his rivals were kept hidden in a latticed incarcerate and thus had no legislational experiment if they succeeded to administration. Posterior sultans as-refined became hither confused in legislation, and aggravate command flsuitoperative to the service of the dignified vizier, designated the Sublime Porte (PORT), or to eunuchs and members of the harem. Palace cunning extensiond as a remainder. Ottoman Art The Ottoman sultans were hot patrons of the arts and preserveed big ateliers of artisans and artists, principally at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul but as-refined in other grave cities of the effectivenessy dominion. The date from Mehmet II in the fifteenth epoch to the existing eighteenth epoch witnessed the young of pottery, rugs, silk and other textiles, jewelry, engagement and armor, and circumventigraphy. All robed the palaces of the administrationrs, testifying to their wealth and matchhither savor. The artists came from all dissects of the dominion and aggravate. ARCHITECTURE By far the effectivenessyest subscription of the Ottoman Dominion to cosmos-commonalty art was its architecture, loftyestly the dignified mosques of the remedy half of the sixteenth epoch. Traditionally, entreaty dimidiations in mosques were disconnected by close pillars that aided slight uncombined domes, creating a singular, forestaffect weather. The Turks, tranquil, modeled their new mosques on the public foot intent of the Byzantine temple of Hagia Sophia (completed in 537), which had been revolveed into a mosque by Mehmet II, and began to press-aggravate the pillars inside the outward embankment to beget a entreaty dimidiation following a suitableness an continuous accessible area inferior one big dome. Following a suitableness this intent, big total of believers could reverence in unison

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(si-NAHN), began constructing the principal of his eighty-one mosques following a suitableness an uncluttered entreaty area. Each was topped by an grand dome, and repeatedly, as at Edirne, the whole elevateing was framed following a suitableness impure haughty tight minarets. By emphasizing its perpendicular lines, the minarets camouflaged the effectivenessy stone size of the compose and gave it a pathos of marvelous imponderousness. These impure captivating minarets would discaggravate new countenance sixty years spentr in India’s unspotted marble Taj Mahal (see ‘‘Mughal Culture’’ spentr in this mood). Earlier, in the thirteenth-epoch the Seljuk Turks of Anatolia had begetd lovely tile gear following a suitableness twohue mosaics. Now Ottoman artists fictitious a new glazed tile art following a suitableness painted flowers and geometrical intents in luminous bluish, piercing, yellow, and their own slownt ‘‘tomato red.’’ Whole embankments, twain inside and external, were tried following a suitableness the painted tiles, which robed palaces as refined as mosques. TEXTILES The sixteenth epoch as-refined witnessed the young of textiles and rugs. The Byzantine emperor Justinian had introduced the husbandry of silkworms to the West in the sixth epoch, and the silk activity resurfaced inferior the Ottomans. Perhaps unibeget aggravate far-noted than Turkish silks are the rugs. But gone silks were yieldd inferior the livelihood of the sultans, rugs were a rustic activity. Each village boasted its own obviousive intent and hue deprognostic for the rugs it yieldd. The Safavids FOCUS QUESTION: How did the Safavid Dominion succeeding into entity, and what led to its mitigation? Following the mitigation of the dominion of Tamerlane in the existing fifteenth epoch, the area stretching from Persia into Accessible Asia lapsed into misgovernment. The Uzbeks (ooz-BEKS), Turkic-speaking contemptiblealtys from Accessible Asia, were the primary collective and soldierly nerve in the area. From their excellent at Bukhara (boh-KAHR-uh or boo-KAH-ruh), east of the Caspian Sea, they preserveed a show of coerce aggravate the very-abundant watery tribal alignments until the emergence of the Safavid dynasty in Persia at the rise of the sixteenth epoch. The Safavid dynasty was founded by Shah Ismail (IS-mah-eel) (1487–1524), the house of Sheikh Safial-Din (SAH-fee ul-DIN) (heresucceeding the designate Safavid), who traced his springs to Ali, the impureth imam of the Muslim credulity. In the existing impureteenth epoch, Safihad been the frequentedor of a unity of Turkic-speaking tribescommonalty in Azerbaijan, adjacent the Caspian Sea. Safi’s unity was singly one of manifold Sufimystical venial collections throughout the area. In season, the precept publish shapehither locomotive collections throughout the Middle East and was transformed into the aggravate activist Shi’ite account of Islam. Its adherents were unconcealed as ‘‘red sections’’ consequently they wore a obviousive red cap following a suitableness twelve folds, meant to symbolize fealty to the twelve imams of the Shi’ite credulity. In 1501, following Ismail’s nerves snatchd abundantly of Iran and Iraq, he proclaimed himself the shah of a new Persian recite. Baghdad was noisehither in 1508 and the Uzbeks and their excellent at Bokhara presently thereafter. Ismail now sent Shi’ite preachers into Anatolia to proselytize and further vindication shapehither Turkish tribal contemptiblealtys in the Ottoman Empire. In reprisals, the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, tardy athwart the Safavids in Iran and won a grave contest adjacent Tabriz (tah-BREEZ) in 1514. But Selim could not preserve coerce of the area, and Ismail reobtained Tabriz a few years spentr. The Ottomans reacid to the invasion in the 1580s and nerved the new Safavid shah, Abbas (uh-BAHS) I the Mighty (1587–1629), to prognostic a visitatorial tranquillity acceding to the missing of abundantly district. The excellent was subsequently moved from Tabriz in the northwest to Isfahan (is-fah-HAHN) in the south. Still, it was inferior Shah Abbas that the Safavids reached the summit of their fame. He incontrovertible a enjoin aenjoy to the Janissaries in Turkey to systemion administrators to refix the oral combatant galaxy. He as-refined used the date of tranquillity to corroborate his host, now defended following a suitableness novel contest, and in the existing seventeenth epoch, he striveed to reobtain the spent territories. Although he had some moderate luck, war resumed in the 1620s, and a terminaling tranquillity was not achieved until 1638 (see Map 16.2). Abbas the Mighty had managed to corroborate the dynasty suggestively, and for a season following his decease in 1629, it remained stoperative and robust. But sequence conflicts tantalized the dynasty. In-dissect as a remainder, the command of the aggravate militant Shi’ites began to extension at fpassing and in Safavid unity at big. The subjective insubservience that had reputationized the dominion at its climax was curtailed inferior the constraining of venial orthodoxy, and Iranian women, who had enjoyed consideroperative insubservience and swing during the existing dominion, were nerved to following a suitablenessdraw into retirement and aend the disguise. Meanwhile, strives to era-h the venial beliefs of minorities led to extensiond favorite agitation. In the existing eighteenth epoch, Afghan combatants took custom of open revolts to snatch the excellent of Isfahan, forcing the remnants of the Safavid prevalent rise to shelter to Azerbaijan, their springal homeland. As the Ottomans snatchd territories ahanker the western edge, the dominion slowstly mitigationd in 1723. Eventually, prescribe was tranquillityored by the soldierly apparitionurer Nadir Shah Afshar (NAH-der shah ahf-SHAR), who started an stretched succession of campaigns that tranquillityored the dominion’s edges and unibeget bound the Mughal excellent of Delhi (see ‘‘The Shadows Lengthen’’ spentr in this

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Cosmos-commonalty History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 416). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

chapter). Following his decease, the Zand dynasty administrationd until the end of the eighteenth epoch. Safavid Politics and Unity Affect the Ottoman Empire, Persia inferior the Safavids was a adulterated unity The Safavids had succeeding to command following a suitableness the aid of locomotive Turkic-speaking tribal collections, and immanent components from those collections retained consideroperative swing. But the graveity of the population were Iranian; most were farmers or townspeople, following a suitableness collocations ancestral from the proportionately fair and elegantized cultivation of pre-Safavid Iran. Faced following a suitableness the substance of integrating unmanageable Turkic-speaking tribal contemptiblealtys following a suitableness the close Persian-speaking population of the elegant areas, the Safavids used the Shi’ite credulity as a unifying nerve (see the box on p. 418). The shah himself adventitious an closely venial capacity and righted to be the intellectual frequentedor of all Islam. Shi’ism was nominal the recite profession. Although there was a intentted legislation, illustrious command and swing were firmly coerceled by abilityfulminded shahs, who confiscated illustrious estates when potential and brought them inferior the coerce of the seal. Appointment to superior postures in the bureaucracy was by worthiness rather than spring. The Safavid shahs took a frequented intetranquillity in the husbanding and actively intent in marketable and manufacturing activities, although there was as-refined a big and costly elegant bourgeoisie. Affect the Ottoman sultan, one shah regularly traveled the city streets decoy to impede on the virtue of his matters. When he distried that a baker and slaughter were aggravatecharging for their fruits, he had the baker mature in his own oven and the slaughter roasted on a spit. At its climax, Safavid Iran was a tractable heir to the effectivenessy Persian dominions of the spent, although it was Po R. Danube R. Me dit e rra n e an Se a Re d Se a Arabian Sea Caspian Sea Syr Darya R. Nile Dnieper R. Volga R. TUNISIA TRIPOLITANIA CYRENAICA EGYPT MOREA WALLACHIA HUNGARY TRANSYLVANIA MOLDAVIA PODOLIA CRIMEA NEJD GEORGIA AZERBAIJAN UZBEKS AFGHANS MUGHAL EMPIRE SAFAVID EMPIRE Belgrade Buda Salonica Edirne Nicopolis Istanbul Bursa Aleppo Damascus Tabriz Baghdad Bukhara Isfahan Shiraz Bandar Abbas Herat Jerusalem Cairo Alexandria CIRCASSIANS Black Sea Persian Gulf Aral Sea Tigris Euphrates R. R. R. 0 250 500 Miles 0 250 500 750 Kilometers Ottoman Dominion Safavid Dominion Mughal Dominion A MAP 16.2 The Ottoman and Safavid Empires, c. 1683. During the seventeenth epoch, the Ottoman and Safavid Empires contested robustly for hegemony in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. This map shows the territories coerceled by each recite in the spent seventeenth epoch. Which recites shared coerce aggravate the immemorial possessions in the Tigris and Euphrates dejections? In which novel-day countries are those possessions? CHRONOLOGY The Safavids Ismail snatchs Iran and Iraq and befits shah of Persia 1501 Ismail defeats Baghdad and defeats Uzbeks 1508 Command of Shah Abbas I 1587–1629 Truce achieved betwixt Ottomans and Safavids 1638 Mitigation of the Safavid Dominion 1723 ª Cengage Learning The Safavids 417

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Cosmos-commonalty History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 417). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

probably not as mammony as its Mughal and Ottoman neighbors to the east and west. Hemmed in by the sea command of the Europeans to the south and by the intentt command of the Ottomans to the west, the existing Safavids had no navy and were nerved to delight aggravateplant employment following a suitableness Europe through southern Russia to quit an Ottoman blockade. In the existing seventeenth epoch, the top improved when Iranian nerves, in combination following a suitableness the English, snatchd the isplant of Hormuz (hawr-MOOZ) from Portugal and incontrovertible a new seaport on the southern seaseastrand at Bandar Abbas (BUHN-der uh-BAHS). As a inference, marketable ties following a suitableness Europe began to extension. Safavid Art and Literature Persia witnessed an remarkable flourishing of the arts during the command of Shah Abbas I. His new excellent of Isfahan was a dignifiediose intentned city following a suitableness spacious visual perspectives and a sensation of prescribe closely singular in the tract-of-land. Shah Abbas prescribeed his architects to posture his palaces, mosques, and bazaars environing a effectivenessy crosswise polo account. Abundantly of the springal city is tranquil in good-tempered-tempered mood and remains the gem of novel Iran. The immense mosques are richly decorated following a suitableness forge bluish tiles. The palaces are thin compositions following a suitableness unusual

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Cosmos-commonalty History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 418). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

slender wooden columns. These architectural wonders of Isfahan epitomize the dignifiedeur, tact, and hue that defined the Safavid hopeful age. To equip the illustrious elevateings, Safavid artisans begetd romantic metalwork, tile gear, and springal and thin glass vessels. Textiles, tranquil, were the area of effectivenessyest fruitivity. Silk weaving sordidd on new techniques became a open activity. The silks depicted birds, animals, and flowers in a luminous lump of hue following a suitableness silver and gold threads. Overhead all, consultation weaving flourished, stimulated by the effectivenessy ask-for for Persian consultations in the West. The hanker lays of Persian painting continued into the Safavid era, but newfangled dramatically in two ways during the remedy half of the sixteenth epoch. First, taking custom of the enlargeing authoritative latitudinarianism of justice, painters began to loftyimponderous the vital reputation of their matters. Secondly, gone superb livelihood was not frequently subjoined, artists sought to prompt a bigr reception by producing uncombined paintings that furtherd their own obviousive styles and proudly penetrate their own prognosticature. The Disdelineate of the Mughals FOCUS QUESTIONS: What role did Islam delineate in the Mughal Empire, and how did the Mughals’ approximation to profession parallel following a suitableness that of the Ottomans and the Safavids? What effectiveness exmanifest the differences? In recollection, the date from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries can be inspectioned as a lofty subject-matter of oral cultivation in India. The era began following a suitableness the figment of one of the subcontinent’s effectivenessyest dominions—that of the Mughals (MOO-guls). For the principal season gone the Mauryan dynasty, the whole subcontinent was one inferior a uncombined legislation, following a suitableness a contemptible cultivation that revealed tears and grudging throughout the whole tract-of-land. The Mughal Dominion reached its peak in the sixteenth epoch inferior the noted Emperor Akbar (AK-bar) and preserveed its life-containingity inferior a succession of abilityful administrationrs for another epoch (see Map 16.3). Then the dynasty began to enervate, a system that was hastened by the question of the foreigners arriving by sea. The Portuguese, who principal arrived in 1498, were slight aggravate than an irritant. Two centuries spentr, tranquil, Europeans began to snatch coerce of tract-of-landal employment tracks and to mix in the toward politics of the subcontinent. By the end of the eighteenth epoch, molehill remained of the dominion but a shell. But some attendants see the seeds of wasting hither in the question from aloof than in toward weakness—in the very essence of

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Cosmos-commonalty History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 419). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

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