Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Model 1. Incomplex sugars approve glucose and fructose are little monosaccharides. Board sugar is a dimer of fructose and glucose and is accordingly stated a disaccharide. Many sugars additional concurrently in a polymer can produce dismally or cellulose (depending on the preparation of chains), and by coincidence, another spectry for a polymer approve dismally or cellulose is a polysaccharide. Because we descry twain incomplex sugars (approve glucose and fructose) and dimers approve sucrose and lactose as sweet – all of these monosaccharides and disaccharides are systematically stated sugar. Polymers approve dismally are tastless to cosmicals – solely when acid or enzymes break dismally down into its ingredient sugar monomers/monosaccharides do we trial the pure discernment.

image1.emf C C CC C O H O H O H OH O C H O H H H H H H C C H C O H HCC C O O H O H O H H H H H H AdimermoleculeofSucrose(i.e.tablesugar) Thishalfofsucroseismadeofthe incomplexsugarmonomer GLUCOSE Thishalfofsucroseismadeoftheincomplex sugarmonomerFRUCTOSEimage2.emf C C CC C O H O H H OH O C H O H H H H H H O H O C C H C O H HCC C O O H O H O H H H H H H H glucose(a.k.adextrose) fructose GlucoseandFructoseareexamplesofsimplesugars-theycontainonlyone ringandarerapidlymetabolizedforenergyinthebody
Figure 7.1. Sucrose (i.e. board sugar) is a dimer of glucose and fructose.
image3.emf H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H  - - - - ++ C C CC C O H O H H OH O C H O H H H H H H OH H O H  +  +  -  -  -  - + + + + + glucose contains O-H chains. O-H chains are polar Figure 7.2. Glucose can arrange hydrogen chains delay infiltrateAll sugars are made alconcomitantly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen particles additional by covalent chains – this is what produces them illustrations of carbohydrate, Cn(H2O)n. Because sugars bear so numerous H-O groups, they beforehand arrange hydrogen chains delay infiltrate – this produces it lenient to dissipate sugars in infiltrate. Sugars are too little which succors them dissipate beforehand in infiltrate. The hydrogen chaining ability of sugars allows them to hold dampness in baked consequence. It is this “wet sugar” that arranges the sticky matrix that holds granola bars concurrently, and gives glazes a sleek probability.

Questions:

1. Chemists flatter glucose and fructose isomers. Using Figure 7.1, can you state how glucose and fructose are chemically connected? (Hint: compute the calculate of carbons, hydrogens and oxygens in twain molecules).

2. Consider the constituency of glucose. Each has the basic molecular arrangeula CnHnOn where n = the calculate of each particle. Record that arrangeula in the board beneath. Now, rewrite the molecular arrangeula in the subjoined arrangeat: Cn(H2O)n

Molecular arrangeula for glucose

Glucose
CnHnOn
Cn(H2O)n

Using this advice, and the advice, illustrate why glucose is an illustration of carbohydrate?

Model 2. Starch is too carbohydrate. In affection, dismally is institute most numerously in one of two arranges: amylose or amylopectin. If you search the constituency of amylose or amylopectin in Figure 7.3, you procure heed that each is a association of repeating individuals. The resembling molecular element is numerous aggravate and aggravate repeatedly. Amylose and amylopectin are polymers – where poly = “many”. The individual of diffuseness is stated a monomer. In amylose and amylopectin, the monomer individual is a glucose. image4.wmf

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Figure 7.3. Amylose and Amylopectin. Two types of dismally.

For cosmicals, carbohydrates approve the amylose and amylopectin in dismally are alert rises of glucose and accordingly alert rises of air. Each bulky glucose polymer is spiritless down by enzymes into glucose monomers, and the monomer glucose is an excusable rise of air for cosmical metabolism.image5.emf

AcartoonofAmylose

AcartoonofAmylopectin

Anamylosepolymerismadeof~1,000glucosemonomersattachedinonelongextendedchain

Anamylopectinpolymerismadeof~5,000-

20,000glucosemonomersarrangedinlong

chainswithhundredsofshortbranchingchains

Figure 7.4. Cartoons of bulky amylose and amylopectin polymers

3. Using Figures 7.3 and 7.4, assimilate the constituency of amylose to that of amylopectin.

a. Illustrate why amylose is stated a 1,4-linked polymer of glucose

b. Illustrate why amylopectin is stated a 1,4 and 1,6 linked polymer of glucose?

c. Are your repartees harmonious delay the reality that amylose is a linear (“approve a line”) polymer of glucose occasion amylopectin is a branched polymer of glucose? Illustrate how.

Model 3. But there are other types of carbohydrate that cosmicals cannot order – for illustration, wheat bran is vivid in another carbohydrate stated cellulose. Cellulose is too a polymer of glucose. Crude carbohydrate is a ingredient of fiber. Fiber is defined as representative in our establish foods that our orderive enzymes can’t breakdown into absorbable nutrients . Cellulose is one of those crude representatives. Cellulose arranges the constituency that holds the establish up and is one of the most abundant polymers on sphere. Most animals cannot order cellulose, but microorganisms approve bacteria and fungi can, which is how establish representative rots in affection. image6.wmf C C C C C O H O H O H O H H O H C H H O H H C C C C C O H H O H O H H O H C H H O H H C C C C C O H H H O H H O H C H H O H H O C C C C C O H H O H O H H O H C H H O H H A m y l o s e C C C C C O H O H O H O H H O H C H H O H H C C C C C O H H O H O H H O H C H H O H H C C C C C O H H H O H H O H C H H O H H O C C C C C O H H O H O H H O H C H H O H H C e l l u l o s e
Figure 7.5. Amylose and Cellulose

Questions:

4. The constituency of cellulose is assimilated to amylose in Figure 7.5.

a. How are amylose and cellulose structurally resembling?

b. How are amylose and cellulose structurally contrariant?

c. Based on the constituencys of amylose and cellulose, when can you decide encircling why cosmicals cannot order cellulose? Use the language bonds and enzyme in your repartee. Drawing on the constituencys overhead may succor.

5. Expand the specification of fiber by rewriting it to involve the language cellulose, glucose and covalent chains.

� Remember, a hydrogen chain is a ionic-type non-covalent interaction betwixt a insufficiently definitive hydrogen and a insufficiently disclaiming oxygen, it is weaker than a covalent chain

� On Food and Cooking, McGee, p. 258

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