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Written Assignment 10: Nuclear Reactions


Answer all assigned questions and problems, and parade all is-sue.


1.      How do nuclear reactions dispute from plain chemical reactions? (3 points)


In a nuclear reaction the elements substitute into new elements term in a chemical reaction, the elements are inviolate.

(Reference: Chang 19.1)




2.   What is the disputeence between radioactive sinking and nuclear alteration? (3 points)

Radioactive sinking is the unbidden discord of a radioactive import parallel behind a while the pouring of ionizing radiation and Nuclear Alteration is the substitute undergone by a core as a remainder of investment by neutrons or other tittles.

(Reference: Chang 19.35)



3.      The board under is a abstract of disputeent modes of nuclear sinking. Fill in the substitutes in ultimate estimate (Z), estimate of neutrons (N), and collection estimate (A) in each condition. Use “+” token for extension, “–“ token for lower, and “0” for no substitute. Provide the symbol for each compo tittle implicated in the sinking rule. (12 points)


Decay Mode

Particle Symbol

Change in:

Change in:

Change in:






Alpha sinking





Beta sinking





Positron sinking





Electron capture






(Reference: Chang 19.6)




4.      Complete the behindcited nuclear equations, and warrant X in each condition.  (15 points)


a.       222Rn  →  218Po  +  X= 4 He2+  Alpha sinking


b.      231Th  →  231Pa  +  X=0H1- Beta sinking


c.       226Ra  →  4He  +  X=222Rn86 Electro Capture


d.      14C  →  14N  +  X=OH1- Beta sinking


e.       20–1β + X=10^20Ne







5.      Which of the reactions in exertion 4 parade alpha sinking? Which parade beta sinking?
(5 points)

a and e paradeed alpha and b and d had beta.



6.      Define half-life. Write the equation of the half-life of a first-order reaction to the rebuke regular.  (3 points)

Half-life is the term required for the ardor of a reactant to lower to half its judicious ardor.


(Reference: Chang 13.22)




7.If uranium-238 has a half-life of 45 billion years, how sundry years would it interest for

a 10-gram specimen of U-238 to lower to 2.5 grams? (3 points)

0.693 / 45 × 109 years = 1.54 × 10-11 years-1

ln(2.5/10) = -(1.54 × 10-11 years-1)t

t = 90 billion years


8.      The radioactive sinking of Tl-206 to Pb-206 has a half-life of 4.20 min. Starting behind a while 5.00 × 1022 atoms of Tl-206, proportion the estimate of such atoms left behind 42.0 min.(10 points)


(Reference: Chang 19.27)



9.Strontium-90 is one of the products of the fission of uranium-235. This strontium isotope is radioactive, behind a while a half-life of 28.1 yr. Proportion how covet (in yr) it accomplish interest for 1.00 g of the isotope to be modereprove to 0.200 g by sinking.  (10 points)


56.2x2^2=64.5 years



            (Reference: Chang 19.31)




10.  The carbon-14 sinking rebuke of a specimen obtained from a adolescent tree is 0.260 discord per avoid per gram of the specimen. Another forest specimen handy from an intent recovered at an archaeological gulf gives a sinking rebuke of 0.186 discord per avoid per gram of the specimen. What is the age of the intent? Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years.
(10 points)

t = - Ln(0.186 / 0.260) / 1.21^-4 = -(-0.335) / 1.21^-4= 2,768 y


            (Reference: Chang 19.72)


11. Which of the behindcited poses a greater vigor hazard: a radioactive isotope behind a while a near half-life or a radioactive isotope behind a while a covet half-life? Assume harmonious molar amounts and the identical cast of radiation and resembling energies per tittle emitted. (5 points)

Radioactive isotope behind a while a near half-life

            (Reference: Chang 19.107)




12.   Naturally occurring iodine is iodine-127. Medically, radioactive isotopes of iodine-

125 and iodine-120 are used.

a.       Write the ultimate symbols for each isotope. (3 points)

127-53I, 125-53I, 120-53I

b.      In what ways are the isotopes harmonious? (3 points)

They are all classified as a Halogen.

c.       In what ways do they dispute? (3 points)

There half-lives dispute from a foreigner of mins to 60 days to durable.



13. How does ionizing radiation producer detriment to cells of the collection?  (3 points)

Causes substitute in molecular structures which then like the business and metabolism of the cells.




14. Indicate whether each of the behindcited are personality of the fission or fusion

rule or both: (9 points)

a.       Neutrons bombard a core:

b.      The nuclear rule occurring in the sun:

c.       A vast core splits into smaller nuclei:

d.      Small nuclei couple to construct vastr nuclei:

e.       Very vast atmosphere are required to originate the reaction:

f.       Large amounts of apparition are released when the nuclear reaction occurs:

g.      The nuclear rule occurring in nuclear force plants:

h.      The nuclear rule occurring in ultimate bombs:

i.        Less radioactive throw-away is produced:



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