Written Assignment 10: Nuclear Reactions
Answer all assigned questions and problems, and parade all issue.
1. How do nuclear reactions dispute from plain chemical reactions? (3 points)
In a nuclear reaction the elements substitute into new elements term in a chemical reaction, the elements are inviolate.
(Reference: Chang 19.1)
2. What is the disputeence between radioactive sinking and nuclear alteration? (3 points)
Radioactive sinking is the unbidden discord of a radioactive import parallel behind a while the pouring of ionizing radiation and Nuclear Alteration is the substitute undergone by a core as a remainder of investment by neutrons or other tittles.
(Reference: Chang 19.35)
3. The board under is a abstract of disputeent modes of nuclear sinking. Fill in the substitutes in ultimate estimate (Z), estimate of neutrons (N), and collection estimate (A) in each condition. Use “+” token for extension, “–“ token for lower, and “0” for no substitute. Provide the symbol for each compo tittle implicated in the sinking rule. (12 points)
Decay Mode
Particle Symbol
Change in:
Change in:
Change in:
Z
N
A
Alpha sinking
a

+
+
Beta sinking
B
+
+
+
Positron sinking
e+
+

+
Electron capture
B
+

0
(Reference: Chang 19.6)
4. Complete the behindcited nuclear equations, and warrant X in each condition. (15 points)
a. ^{222}Rn → ^{218}Po + X= 4 He2+ Alpha sinking
b. 231Th → 231Pa + X=0H1 Beta sinking
c. ^{226}Ra → ^{4}He + X=222Rn86 Electro Capture
d. ^{14}C → ^{14}N + X=OH1 Beta sinking
e. ^{20}F →_{–1}β + X=10^20Ne
5. Which of the reactions in exertion 4 parade alpha sinking? Which parade beta sinking?
(5 points)
a and e paradeed alpha and b and d had beta.
6. Define halflife. Write the equation of the halflife of a firstorder reaction to the rebuke regular. (3 points)
Halflife is the term required for the ardor of a reactant to lower to half its judicious ardor.
(Reference: Chang 13.22)
7.If uranium238 has a halflife of 45 billion years, how sundry years would it interest for
a 10gram specimen of U238 to lower to 2.5 grams? (3 points)
0.693 / 45 × 109 years = 1.54 × 1011 years1
ln(2.5/10) = (1.54 × 1011 years1)t
t = 90 billion years
8. The radioactive sinking of Tl206 to Pb206 has a halflife of 4.20 min. Starting behind a while 5.00 × 10^{22} atoms of Tl206, proportion the estimate of such atoms left behind 42.0 min.(10 points)
5x10^22x(1/2^10)=4.88x10^19
(Reference: Chang 19.27)
9.Strontium90 is one of the products of the fission of uranium235. This strontium isotope is radioactive, behind a while a halflife of 28.1 yr. Proportion how covet (in yr) it accomplish interest for 1.00 g of the isotope to be modereprove to 0.200 g by sinking. (10 points)
56.2x2^2=64.5 years
(Reference: Chang 19.31)
10. The carbon14 sinking rebuke of a specimen obtained from a adolescent tree is 0.260 discord per avoid per gram of the specimen. Another forest specimen handy from an intent recovered at an archaeological gulf gives a sinking rebuke of 0.186 discord per avoid per gram of the specimen. What is the age of the intent? Carbon14 has a halflife of 5730 years.
(10 points)
t =  Ln(0.186 / 0.260) / 1.21^4 = (0.335) / 1.21^4= 2,768 y
(Reference: Chang 19.72)
11. Which of the behindcited poses a greater vigor hazard: a radioactive isotope behind a while a near halflife or a radioactive isotope behind a while a covet halflife? Assume harmonious molar amounts and the identical cast of radiation and resembling energies per tittle emitted. (5 points)
Radioactive isotope behind a while a near halflife
(Reference: Chang 19.107)
12. Naturally occurring iodine is iodine127. Medically, radioactive isotopes of iodine
125 and iodine120 are used.
a. Write the ultimate symbols for each isotope. (3 points)
12753I, 12553I, 12053I
b. In what ways are the isotopes harmonious? (3 points)
They are all classified as a Halogen.
c. In what ways do they dispute? (3 points)
There halflives dispute from a foreigner of mins to 60 days to durable.
13. How does ionizing radiation producer detriment to cells of the collection? (3 points)
Causes substitute in molecular structures which then like the business and metabolism of the cells.
14. Indicate whether each of the behindcited are personality of the fission or fusion
rule or both: (9 points)
a. Neutrons bombard a core:
Fission
b. The nuclear rule occurring in the sun:
Fusion
c. A vast core splits into smaller nuclei:
Fission
d. Small nuclei couple to construct vastr nuclei:
Fusion
e. Very vast atmosphere are required to originate the reaction:
Fusion
f. Large amounts of apparition are released when the nuclear reaction occurs:
Both
g. The nuclear rule occurring in nuclear force plants:
Fission
h. The nuclear rule occurring in ultimate bombs:
Both
i. Less radioactive throwaway is produced:
Fusion
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