Economic Growth and the Environment

Timed Essay Two

Economic Enlargement and the Environment

Table of Contents Timed Essay Two 1 Economic Enlargement and the Environment 1 Seminar Questions: Economic Enlargement and the Environment 3 Extract 1: Omoju (2014) 4 Extract 1: Comprehension Questions 6 Extract 2: Zou (2015) 7 Extract 2: Comprehension Questions 11 Extract 3: The Economist (2008) 12 Extract 3: Comprehension Questions 16 Extract 4: Jacobson (2016) 17 Extract 4: Comprehension Questions 20

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Seminar Questions: Economic Enlargement and the Environment

1. What appearance is tless that unraveling countries are causing environmental hurt?

2. Who is most at risk from this environmental hurt?

3. As countries unravel and beseem deeper, do they normally beseem hither ‘green’ or balance ‘green’? Why?

4. What is the Environmental Kuznet Curve? How would you decipher it, in your own suffrage?

5. What does it balance to ‘leapfrog balance fossil fuels’?

6. Can unraveling countries subject their own environmental hurt? If so, how?

7. Can unraveled countries subject unraveling countries’ environmental hurt? If so, how?

8. What is the alliance betwixt economic enlargement, cheerful-natured-natured-natured empire, and environmental vigor?

Text 1: Omoju (2014)

Omoju, O. (2014) Environmental defilement is infallible in unraveling countries. Conducive at: https://breakingenergy.com/2014/09/23/environmental-pollution-is-inevitable-in-developing-countries/ (Accessed: 13 May 2020). Oluwasola Omoju is grounded at the China Center for Breath Economics Repursuit (CCEER), School of Economics, Xiamen University, China Defilement is one of the numerous environmental defys oppositeness the globe today. The impression of defilement is balance rigid in unraveling countries, innate to ill vigor, demise and disabilities of countenanceites of race year-by-year. Familiar countries endure the media and technologies to contention defilement. As a crop of the vigor risks and the immanent impression of spless veer, tless endure been exertions to subject defilement. However, conjuncture this may be lenient for unraveled countries, halting environmental defilement may counteract economic enlargement and competitiveness of unraveling countries whose economies pauses on probable media. Familiar countries endure concluded waste economic enlargement and unravelment and can administer to convergence on environmental designs consequently basic buttress necessities endure been concluded. At complete aim and in complete roll of unravelment, countries ask-for to execute choices betwixt frequently dashing designs. Developing countries crave to determine breath for all at a competitive compensation to conclude and celebrate economic enlargement and ask-for abatement. The breath ask-for practiced in these districts has been convergeed delay the exalted roll of concedeance and non-allowance ask-for in the districts. In their crave to unravel and rectify the rules of buttress of their citizens, these countries earn opt for the designs of economic enlargement and worthhither breath for all. This may transfer to environmental defilement and suspension. Balance so, breath injuryoniousity, and at a inferior compensation, is indispensable to execute the industries in unraveling countries competitive and conduce to economic enlargement, job creation and unravelment. Ensuring breath injuryoniousity to the population and enhancing the competitiveness of national industries may exact providing breath at inferior compensations through breath subsidies. This earn advance breath balance-consumption, lavish and inaptitude and to-boot fuel environmental defilement. Most unraveling countries, specially those in sub-Saharan Africa, pause majorly on probable media for enrichment and alien veer. These economics are importunen by funds generated from exploitation of probable media such as coal, oil and gas, urban and grove media, gold, copper, etc. The buttress of the concretiones to-boot pauses on these media. However, the exploitation and ordaining of some of these media crop in environmental defilement and suspension. For purpose, the elimination of oil and the activities of multinational oil companies in the Niger Delta district of Nigeria has objectd waste plant, breathe-into and air defilement. However, for Nigeria to celebrate its running economic enlargement passage and celebrate its importune for ask-for abatement, oil elimination and formation earn endure to be a dominant economic breath. This is to-boot the predicament delay a compute of other unraveling countries. The inevitforce of defilement in unraveling countries has been demonstrated by the Environmental Kuznet Curve. The EKC is a hypothesized alliance betwixt indicators of environmental suspension and concedeance per capita. According to the scheme, environmental defilement and suspension eliminatement in the forthcoming amounts of economic enlargement, get to a peak aim, and contrariety in such a way that the environment rectifys at exalted concedeance rolls. This is grounded on the take-placerence that unraveling countries crave industrialization and economic enlargement and serve to burn balance worthhither breath. Tless is to-boot ask-for for unraveling countries to institute roads and chide tracks and unravel waste infrastructure to advance economic enlargement. Such activities that are exactd at the captivate-off amount of economic unravelment are wastely breath-intensive. The essential role of industrialization in the unravelment ordain of unraveling countries cannot be balanceemphasized. Tless is ask-for for structural intercharge from small-scale cultivation to industrialization in ordain for unraveling countries to test embracing and pro-indigent enlargement. However, industrialization exacts waste use of breath media which could transfer to defilement and environmental suspension. China would not endure concluded the forcible economic enlargement and unravelment it has commemorative in recent years if she had cared encircling defilement at the judicious amount of unravelment. Other unraveled economies apdemonstrate the OECD are to-boot convergenceing on environmental celebrateforce succeeding achieving extensive enlargement and rectifyment in the buttress rule of their citizens. The Chinese economic copy is breath intensive, delay sound convergence on siege and industrialization, and is duration adopted by a compute of unraveling countries. In misrecord, unraveling countries in their pursuit for economic unravelment and ask-for abatement are expected to put economic enlargement, breath for all and industrialization at the forefront of their designs precedently giving subsidy to environmental issues. Therefore, compelling unraveling countries apdemonstrate those in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to prosecute environmental designs, aimly abatement in CO2 emissions, earn exact waste economic, technological and financial buttress from unraveled countries and the interdiplomatic unity to satisfy for the economic droppinges associated delay reducing defilement.

End of extract.

Text 1: Comprehension Questions

1. What are the global consequences of endured defilement?

2. Why is the design of increasing the availforce of worthhither breath so essential to unraveling countries?

3. What are the privative consequences of pursuing this design through breath subsidies?

4. According to the composer, numerous unraveling countries’ economies pause on their probable media, how is this exemplified by the predicament of Nigeria?

5. In the composer’s vision, what ask-fors to take-place precedently a empire can set-out prioritising environmental designs?

6. What is the indicate of the scheme that says all countries endure to object environmental hurt during their forthcoming amounts of economic enlargement?

7. According to the composer, what three kinds of buttress earn unraveled countries endure to administer if they delaydrawal unraveling districts such as South Asia to fly defilement?

Text 2: Zou (2015)

Zou, J. (2015) Endure 6: Rising defilement in the unraveling globe. Globe Economic Forum. Conducive at: https://reports.weforum.org/outlook-global-agenda-2015/top-10-trends-of-2015/6-rising-pollution-in-the-developing-world/ (Accessed: 13 May 2020). Zou Ji is Deputy Director-General, National Centre for Spless Veer Strategy and Interdiplomatic Cooperation, China, and a Member of the Global Agenda Council on Spless Change The industrialization of the unraveling globe is creating unsustainable defilement rolls. The disconnection exacts a technological and an psychical gift; an choice passage to economic weal that preserves media and limits carbon emissions has to be unraveled precedently it is too recent. The unraveling globe has conversant a lot encircling wholesale copys, infrastructure and technology from Europe and North America. Those patterns fruited well-mannered-mannered economically, but the globe’s carbon talents cannot concede us to endure on this passage. Rising defilement in the unraveling globe is ranked as the sixth most telling global endure this year – and in Asia it’s the third. China became the largest uncookedhouse gas emitter in 2005 and in this posture, followed by the United States and the European Union, concording to the Globe Media Institute. Brazil and India are the fifth and the eighth biggest polluters. Developing countries earn endure the most from the weather-allied distresss and eliminatementd breathe-into urgency objectd by global fierying, consequences outlined in our other endure chapters. Even 2°C fierying balancesummit preindustrial – the warrantyriction the globe earn test – would crop in 4-5% of African and South Asian GDP duration gone-by and unraveling countries are expected to endure 75-80% of impression absorbs. China’s burgeoning manufacturing sector manufactured one of the biggest unromantic eliminatements in dominion formation talents – but this has succeed at a bulky absorb. According to anatomy by the Global Parcel of Dispeace Study, air defilement in China conduced to 1.2 countenanceite precipitate demises in 2010, representing a dropping of 25 countenanceite years of vigory duration. We ask-for to confront a balances to endure the empire’s dilution conjuncture reducing fossil fuel use. This balances endueing in a dominion formation netfruit that can administer coal, including renewables, nuself-evident and gas, and phasing out low-teachableness generators. Advance ask-fors to be measured by notforce other than GDP, which does not conceive environmental stipulations or virtue of duration. As essential as China’s role earn be, the unraveling globe must adless to targets set for renewable dominion formation, determine exalted-polluting industries are well regulated, and advance pure breath. As the biggest emitter of uncookedhouse gases, China’s policies are sublime in addressing global fierying, and are to-boot potent for other unraveling nations. The perishing endure the most fruit to do to subject uncookedhouse gas emissions and earn endure the impressions of global fierying, yet the business for the opening can’t warranty delay them alone; Globe Bank repursuit estimates exalted concedeance countries are obligatory for two-thirds of the CO2 released into the territory gone 1850. Tless are two deep ways unraveled countries ask-for to acceleration delay this ordain. Tless ask-fors to be a stream of funding to the unraveling globe, providing the balances to finance veer, and we must promote to unravel new low carbon technologies. It’s sharp that countries such as China institute up their repursuit and unravelment talents for empty dominion, coil turbines and carbon detain, and interdiplomatic compact can acceleration unraveled countries beseem concerned exalteder up the administer chain. The 2010 Cancun concord, which set hanker-distinguished funding arrangements, is the second bisect of the be-wilderment. The Uncooked Spless Fund, shapelyized at the meeting, administers a media for accelerationing unraveling nations mix and subject their carbon emissions. Even so, we quiet ask-for to determine that the specie streams to these projects, and unraveled countries ask-for to execute self-evident how to conclude this financial abettance target. It is essential to recognize that uniformly exalted-carbon disconnections endure been implemented, they are obscure to administer. This balances the decisions duration made today on dominion formation, and the way our cities and ecstasy networks are contrived, are unconditionally sharp. Tless is a immanent to endure a big impression now, but the coilow of opening earn delay very before-long.

Rising defilement in the unraveling globe:

Inside the postulates

Which district earn be most artful by

rising defilement

in the unraveling globe

in the contiguous 12-18 months?

How sublime a whole does

rising defilement in the

developing globe

pose for districts encircling the globe?

Source: Pew Repursuit Center Global Attitudes Project, 2014

Source: Survey on the Global Agenda 2014

Very big

problem

Key

Moderately

big whole

Small

problem

Not a whole

at all

%

42

14

%

33

%

3

%

Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa

51

%

18

%

28

%

4

%

%

55

12

%

31

%

2

%

Middle East & North Africa

Latin America

%

72

%

6

%

20

%

1

Europe

36

%

16

%

%

44

3

%

Asia

%

37

Sub-Saharan

Africa

19

%

Latin

America

%

20

Middle East &

North Africa

%

14

North

America

%

6

Europe

4

%

End of Text

Text 2: Comprehension Questions

1. Why is it in unraveling countries’ own interests to confront a non-polluting passage to economic enlargement?

2. Why does the composer intimate that GDP is no hankerer a beneficial measurement of ‘progress’?

3. Statistics approveness the unraveling globe is contributing heavily to global defilement, so why should exalted-allowance unraveled countries to-boot be considered obligatory for the environmental opening?

4. How is the 2010 Cancun concord providing bisect of the disconnection to accelerationing countries fly environmentally pernicious forms of economic enlargement?

5. Why, concording to the composer, is it animate for unraveling countries to switch from exalted-carbon approaches to enlargement as before-hanker as practicable?

Text 3: The Economist (2008)

How uncooked is their enlargement? (2008) Conducive at: https://www.economist.com/international/2008/01/24/how-green-is-their-enlargement (Accessed: 13 May 2020). A new discussion that economic advance can acceleration to peace environmental woes, orderly so hanker as the governance is cheerful-natured-natured-natured too. Can indigent countries administer to be uncooked? That is a pursuition which politicians in the unraveling globe endure frequently asked rather aimedly. To them, it seems that the obsession of some deep molds delay preserving groves and shy cuddly animals apdemonstrate pandas or lemurs, conjuncture paying hither note to the rational durations buttress nearby, is twain cross-grained and smooth. Tless is, of conduct, enough of appearance that uncookedery and enlargement are not polar opposites. Succeeding decades of dilution in China and other fast-emerging economies, some of the privative side-property and their impression on rational prosperity, balancesummit all the demise tax objectd by corrupt air and breathe-into, are horribly self-evident. Yet the alliance betwixt enlargement and the set-forth of the environment is far from unadorned. Some new empty has been style by a team of discoveryers led by Daniel Esty of Yale University, who delivered their misrecords this week to the Globe Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. What they presented was the recentst annual Environmental Sustainforce Index, which grades the “environmental vigor” of 150countries — using numerous indicators, from population urgency and eco-system vigor to collective and institutional talents. This year's reverberation convergencees on the converge betwixt the set-forth of the environment and rational vigor. In a nutshell, what the new reverberation (to-boot sponsored by the European Commission and Columbia University) intimates is that indigent countries endure been perfectly fair to defy the kind of uncooked orthodoxy which rejects the very proposal of economic enlargement. Indeed, the unmarried biggest veerable in determining a empire's ranking is concedeance per summit. But that doesn't indicate that economic enlargement automatically transfers to an rectifyment in the environment. The team's confronting is that enlargement does present disconnections to the kinds of environmental woes (national air defilement, for in) that instantly deaden rationals. This matters, consequently encircling a territory of all demises in the globe endure some converge to environmental take-placerenceors. Most of the victims are indigent race who are already weak consequently of bad buttress stipulations, delaydrawal of injuryoniousity to corrective, and malnutrition. Among the deadeners (specially of children) in which the environment plays a role are diarrhoea, respiratory communicated and exhalation. These diseases repair a peccant dispersion of ask-for and cloud by lugubrious formation. According to the Globe Bank, the economic parcel on communion objectd by bad environmental vigor amounts to betwixt 2% and 5% of GDP. Mr Esty's anatomy intimates that as indigent countries get deeper, they usually endue heavily in environmental rectifyments, such as pureing up breathe-into anticipation and improving sanitation, that boost rational vigor. (Their economies may to-boot transfer attribute, from making steel or chemicals to turning out computer chips.) But the converge betwixt enlargement and environmentally kind outcomes is considerable hither self-evident, the consider intimates, when it succeeds to the kind of defilement that corrupts up creation (such as aculeated rain, which infects lakes and groves) as divergent to instantly deadening rational durations. The key to addressing that kind of defilement, Mr Esty controverts, is not orderly specie but cheerful-natured-natured-natured governance. A delayr seem at the rankings executes this alliance self-evidenter. Of conduct it is no astonish that Switzerplant fares rectify than Niger. But why is the indigent Dominican Recommon considerable vigorier and uncookeder than nearby Haiti? Or Costa Rica so far asummit of Nicaragua, whose creation and media are broadly injuryonious? And why is monied Belgium the corrupt man of Western Europe, delay an environmental proceedings worse than that of numerous unraveling countries? A structure of take-placerenceors allied to cheerful-natured-natured-natured empire—accurate postulates, translucent government, delaydrawal of decay, checks and balances—all approveness a self-evident statistical alliance delay environmental deed. Among countries of congruous concedeance, Mr Esty concludes, unmanageable regulations and balancesummit all, enforcement are the key take-placerenceors in custody things uncooked. All this may be a beneficial way of seeming at defilement in the fina meaning, but tless is another take-placerenceor that may disestablish all prior calculations encircling the alliance betwixt enlargement and the set-forth of the universe: spless veer. Greenhouse emissions do not infect race, or lakes or woods, in the plain or self-evident way that exaggerative chemicals do. But at meanest in the medium distinguished, they clforthcoming remodel the universe in ways that hurt the prosperity of the indigent. Paul Epstein of the Harvard Medical School says the impression twain on creation and instantly on rationality of global fierying earn shift all other environmental take-placerenceors. As remodelations in the spless transfer to concretion migrations, epidemics earn spread; as moderate zones fiery up, symbolical diseases apdemonstrate exhalation earn surge; storms earn balancewhelm sewer systems; fever waves earn butt ozone rolls up. He may be fair, but less too economic enlargement, coupled delay cheerful-natured-natured-natured governance, may yet demonstrate to be a fountain of disconnections rather than wholes. At the consequence, peradventure 2 billion race endure no shapely injuryoniousity to novel breath—they execute do delay cow uncleanness, urban peace and other valid fuels which are far from vigory. Unhither self-preservation and intellect are applied to the complacency of these race's ask-fors, they may comprise the filthiest and most carbon-emitting forms of fossil-fuel breath as before-hanker as they get the hazard. A structure of economic enlargement and translucent governance may present the barely hazard of flying that distress. Indeed, completeone earn execute if indigent countries confront a way to leapfrog balance the phases of unravelment, which in so numerous other places did dreadful hurt to the environment.

End of extract.

Text 3: Comprehension Questions

1. Researchers from which University endure demonstrated that countries delay the exaltedest concedeance per summit are the most environmentally celebrateable?

2. A territory of all demises in the globe are intention to be convergeed to what?

3. According to the reverberation by Esty which kinds of environmental rectifyments do countries probablely prosecute, and which kinds of defilement do they serve to admit?

4. What take-placerenceor deciphers why countries delay a injuryonious roll of economic enlargement endure unanalogous rolls of environmentally pernicious impression?

5. What are three aspects of ‘good-natured governance’?

6. Which countries are endureing economically consequently of their indigent environmental vigor?

7. What larger defys does Paul Epstein consider we are all oppositeness?

Text 4: Jacobson (2016)

Jacobson, M. (2016) The unraveling globe can leapfrog dirty coal and go direct to pure breath. Conducive at: https://www.fastcompany.com/3056313/the-developing-world-can-leapfrog-dirty-coal-and-go-straight-to-clean-breath (Accessed: 13 May 2020). Mark Jacobson is a bigot of well-mannered and environmental engineering at Stanford University and plainor of its Territory and Breath Program. Jacobson unravels computer copys encircling the property of unanalogous breath technologies and their emissions on air defilement and sphere. He is a Senior Fellow at twain the Woods Institute for the Environment and the Precourt Institute for Breath at Stanford. He’s to-boot the co-foinferior of the nonprofit Solutions Project . When empty farms in sub-Saharan Africa set-out to beseem balance base than coal-fired dominion plants, it is span for the warranty of the globe to captivate note. The pure breath gift is take-placeing fair now inferior our feet. The expeditiously unfolding breath transition is bypassing coal and going direct to low-absorb renewables. Two centuries of persistent fossil fuels brought unravelment to considerable of the globe, but to-boot brought large-scale spless exveer and a assemblage of rigid impressions: countenanceites of demises from air defilement and inordinate fever, delaydrawal of injuryoniousity to novel breath services for billions of the globe’s indigent and geocollective conflicts balance media. Conjuncture spless exveer is one of the most pressing crises of our span, extensive repursuit indicates that the possibility of instantly switching to 100% pure, renewable breath that earn ease these impressions is at our fingertips. The recently identified Paris Agreement is a breathe-intoshed consequence for the pure breath transition. It administers the soundest dispense distinguished yet for companies and countries to inclose down on their renewable breath sieges and to endure emotional separate from fossil fuels. That exveer is already take-placeing in numerous bisects of the unraveling globe. The expeditiously unfolding breath transition is bypassing coal and going direct to low-absorb renewables. As countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America grip this hazard to “leapfrog” balance fossil fuels and amplify their pure breath talents, they not barely service from economic enlargement and worthhither electricity, they to-boot eliminatement their warranty and fly the rigid hurt to vigor and the environment that persistent fossil fuels objects. In take-placerence, the Paris Spless Meeting prompted the creation of the African Renewable Breath Initiative, a continent-wide program to wastely eliminatement Africa’s pure breath balance the contiguous 15 years conjuncture bypassing the pitfalls of fossil fuels. As the new African Renewable Breath Initiative indicates, countries endure the force not barely to leapfrog fossil fuels, but to-boot to administer them conjuncture custody the emptys on. Our discovery, conducted at Stanford University and the University of California, approvenesss that by 2050 nforthcoming complete empire in the globe can transition its all-purpose breath to 100% pure, renewable coil, breathe-into and sunlight. Africa has telling pure breath media conducive that execute it technically and economically manageable for 80% of the continent’s breath to be switched to renewables from fossil fuels no recentr than 2030. As Africa’s running population grows from 1.1 billion to 1.6 billion by 2030, coil and empty could balancecaptivate fossil fuels as the dominant forms of breath. For in, our anatomy approvenesss that South Africa could get 56% of its electricity from utility-scale empty, Kenya 28%, and Mozambique 34%, all for inferior absorb than electrifying delay coal. Conjuncture unsuppressed scenarios forebode encircling half of the continent earn endure injuryoniousity to the electricity grid by 2030, this balances 640 countenanceite Africans earn delay into the grid for the original span benediction to renewables. This is not orderly pie in the sky. Our fruit is grounded on specific engineering and an itemized mix of technologies and absorbs for 139 nations, including how considerable plant and rooftop area would be ask-fored to add renewable technologies. Some may surprise wless all of this breath earn succeed from. The waste superiority of electricity earn be generated by coil and empty dominion: nforthcoming a third from coil, balance half from empty dominion (the superiority utility-scale photovoltaics) and the warranty via hydroelectric dams, geothermal and tidal dominion. The pure breath transition earn captivate-place by electrifying completething: cars, fevering, urban and industrial equipment can all run on electricity. Rapidly advancing battery technology determines this dominion earn be tless when ask-fored. Electrifying subjects dominion ask-for by encircling a third benediction to the teachableness of electricity balance persistent fossil fuels. Tless is no waver that inferiortaking this mold of waste intercharge in unraveling countries earn be challenging. It earn exact competent financial and collective buttress, which can be stubborn to succeed by in countries that test collective instforce and low common financing. Common specie earn be indispensable to get the ball rolling through initiatives apdemonstrate the common funds transfers from unraveled countries to unraveling ones, set up by the Paris Agreement. These funds earn open the door for trillions of dollars of privy sector siege. The services of achieving this transition are global. They conceive eliminating 4 to 7 countenanceite precipitate air defilement demises per year–harmonious to the annual demises objectd by smoking. It would administer well-regulated dominion to indelicate billion race that do not runningly endure it and compose balance 20 countenanceite hanker-distinguished pure breath jobs. Turbocharging the pure breath transition is to-boot sublime to tackling spless veer. Countries that pick-out to to-leap gone-by fossil fuels in countenance of renewables fly eliminatementd vigorcare absorbs and see soinferior job enlargement and sublimeer collective possession. The pure breath transition earn fly air defilement absorbs that that are balance 3% of annual globe GDP and anticipate $16 to $20 trillion per year in global spless absorbs by 2050. The deep barriers to a balance flying alteration are neither technical nor economic. They are collective and collective. As Western transferers apdemonstrate President Francoise Hollande of France assert, tless is a bulky opening for unraveling countries to instigate directly to new, pure breath technologies. The consequence is full for interdiplomatic policymakers to leverage the Paris Agreement’s sound dispense distinguished and expedite the running advance. The roadmaps to pure breath that we endure unraveled bestow belief to globe transferers that the passage to 100% renewable breath is self-evident and achievable. Considerable of the globe is already summiting down that passage to a pure breath forthcoming. The balance we buttress that transition, the rectify off we all are.

End of extract.

Text 4: Comprehension Questions

1. According to Jacobson, are unraveling countries going through an infallible conclusion of eliminatementd defilement through oppressive fossil fuel use as they prosecute economic enlargement?

2. What are the services of making a flying transition to endueing in eliminatementd availforce of pure breath?

3. What does the repursuit by Stanford University and the University of California intimate encircling Africa’s force to fly oppressive defilement conjuncture increasing injuryoniousity to breath?

4. What are the services of providing financial and collective buttress to countries so that they can transition to renewable breath?

5. How considerable financial shy could be made by a global exertion to transition to pure breath?

6. Does the composer consider that we delaydrawal the technology and/or specie to conclude this transition?

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