Experiment 10: introduction to electrical circuits (lab report)

 

EXPERIMENT 10:

 

Introduction to Electrical Circuits

Read the all trial and arfile age, materials, and production immeasurableness precedently threshold.

Remember to reconsideration the insurance sections and excavate goggles when expend

Objectives: To construct and perceive the principles of a lowly electric circumference, and

To interpret to use the diverse dutys of a digital multimeter (DMM),

including ammeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter.

Materials: Student Provides: Computer delay spreadsheet software

From LabPaq: Digital multimeter, DMM

5 Jumper cables

3 1.5V Batteries delay holders

100 Ħ Resistor

Discussion and Review: Lection and perceiveing a circumference diagram and then

building an electric circumference from it is a aptitude vile to lection a comcollocation blue-colored-colored stereotype. In

this laboratory employment, wefll grace affefficacious delay the basic conditions and symbols failureed

to construct electric circumferences. Some of the most vile symbols used in the circumference diagrams

you get be using are illusionn underneath.

Name Symbol(s) Example

DC Authority (Battery) Flashlight batteries

VDC

AC Power, VAC Wall authority outlet

Resistor, R Heating atom, lamp, etc

Lamp Light bulb

On/Off switch Light switch

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Name Symbol(s) Example

Wire Any wire

Capacitor Prevalent storage

Diode Digital thermometer

Inductor Wire coil

Meter Symbols: We get be using a digital multimeter (DMM) which can be used as a

voltmeter to mete voltage, an ammeter to mete prevalent, and an ohmmeter to

mete hindrance. The symbols for divorceicular meters are:

Voltmeter to mete voltage

Ammeter to mete prevalent

Circuit Drawings: The regularitys in this manual think the way

circuits are traditionally drawn to illusion how constituents are

connected. Your developed circumferences get not observe as fine and handy as the

diagrams gone connecting cables get not

be in wholly rectirectilinear rows and angles. At

uplawful is a photo of how an developed circumference

susceptibility observe. The left photo illusions how two

sets of jumper cables are arelish to one

resister in analogous.

Reading and perceiveing the tint adjudications of resistors: To proportion the appreciate of a

resistor, use the tint-coded stripes on the resistor and the subjoined procedures, plus

the board on the subjoined page:

1. Depend the resistor so that the gold or silver stripe is at the upuplawful end of the resistor.

2. Observe at the tint of the principal two stripes on the left end. These answer to the

principal two digits of the resistor appreciate. Use the subjoined board to state the principal

two digits.

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3. Observe at the third stripe from the left. This answers to a multitudinousness appreciate.

Find the appreciate using the board underneath. Discuss the two-digit estimate from Step 2

by the estimate from Step 3. This is the appreciate of the resistor in ohms.

4. The fourth stripe indicates the hit of the resistor. A gold stripe resources the

appreciate of the resistor may modify delayin 5% from the appreciate ardent by the stripes. A

silver stripe resources the appreciate of the resistor may modify delayin 10% from the appreciate

ardent by the stripes.

Resistor Tint Codes: Discaggravate the adjudication delay gold or silver stripe on upuplawful end.

With a scanty action you shortly get be efficacious to promptly state the appreciate of a resistor

by lawful a intention at the tint -coded stripes. Assume you are ardent a resistor whose

stripes are tinted from left to upuplawful as brown, sombre, orange-colored-colored, and gold. To confront the

hindrance appreciate:

.. Depend the resister to whinder its gold stripe is on the upright.

.. The principal stripe on the left is brown, which has a appreciate of 1. The assist stripe

from the left is sombre, which has a appreciate of 0. Gone the principal two digits of the

hindrance appreciate are 1 and 0, this resources this appreciate is 10.

.. The third stripe is orange-colored-colored, which resources to discuss the earlier appreciate by

1,000.

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.. Thus the appreciate of the hindrance 10 age 1000 or 10 x 1000 = 10,000 ohms.

10,000 ohms can too be explicit as 10 kilohms or 10 k Ħ ohms.

.. The stripe in Step 1 is gold; this resources the developed appreciate of the resistor may

modify by 5%. Gone 5% of 10,000 = 0.05 x 10,000 = 500, the developed appreciate in

our stance get be somewhinder betwixt 9,500 ohms and 10,500 ohms.

DIGITAL MULTIMETER OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS: It is expressive that you discover

and perceive the subjoined advices plus pay circumspection to the special

cautions eminent underneath or you could impairment the multimeter and/or misfortune a smelt.

Replacement smelts can be purchased at electronics treasures. Direct any use

biased questions to your succession educationist.

Digital Multimeters (DMM): It is expressive to affableize yourself delay the DMMfs

operations now so you can catch servile metements delayout baneful the meter.

Multimeters are so denominated accordingly they can mete three unanalogous qualities of a circumference.

These qualities, their symbols, and their basic size of metement are summarized in

the board underneath: A unanalogous type of multimeter may be included in your LabPaqs, so

generic DMM unimpeded advice as well-behaved-behaved as those biased to the Cen-Tech DMM are

included hinder.

Regardshort of the DMM type in your

LabPaq, you should collectively reconsideration

its cognate advices in

addition to the ones discussed underneath.

Lead Wires (Cen-Tech): Manage wires must be

arelish suitable. The sombre manage is normally

arelish to the foot marginal labeled COM for

vile which is too denominated plea. The red manage

must be arelish to the answering marginal

for what you deficiency to mete. For voltage,

hindrance and low DC prevalent, use the average

marginal labeled VĦmA. (V=volts, Ħ=hindrance in

ohms, mA=milli-ampere).

For DC prevalent aggravatehead 200mA, use the top 10ADC

terminal. Detailed advices as to when to use

the average vs. the excellent marginal for the red manage

are ardent for each of the biased metement

instructions underneath. Always discaggravate advices

carefully to be assured you arrest the manages into the

correct marginals for the expend bulk of

what you deficiency to mete.

Symbol: V I and A R

Measurement:

Units:

Voltage

Volt

Current

Ampere

Resistance

Ohm or Ħ

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Basic Operations: The CEN-TECH digital multimeter (DMM) has a spherical file dial

knob and a unconjoined On-OFF switch. The accessible dial must be in the expend

collocation for the dischargeance you deficiency to discharge.

The dial has the subjoined collocations begining delay DCV and going clockwise:

.. DCV - To mete DC voltage: enhancements 200mV, 2000mV(2V); 20V, 200V, 1000V

.. ACV To mete AC voltage: enhancements: 200 & 750V

.. 1.5V(4.0mA) & 9V(25mA) - To mete battery inculpate for 1.5V & 9V

batteries singly

.. DCA . To mete DC prevalent . enhancements: 200ƒÊA, 2000 ƒÊA (=2mA); 20mA, and

200mA (= 0.2A)

.. 10A . To mete DC prevalent deep than 200mA

.. hFE . To mete transistor appreciates

.. To mete diode voltage drop

.. Ħ - To mete hindrance . enhancements: 200 Ħ, 2000 Ħ, 20K Ħ, 200K Ħ, 2000K Ħ

Use of the DMM as a DC Voltmeter: To mete voltage (V) estrangement, the DMM

leads are arelish to the ends of the constituent(s) conjuncture the circumference is energized.

Connect the explicit red manage hinder to the + end of the battery and the privative sombre

manage to the . end of the battery.

1. Depend the discollocation dial to the expend DCV enhancement. The enhancement clarified must be

upper than the bulk of expected volts or the DMM smelt may misfortune out! For a

1.5V scheme, set at the 2V enhancement, for a 9V scheme set it at the 20V enhancement, etc.

If you do not perceive the file of your appreciate, begin delay the principal file and

switch down to inferior files as compulsory. This get bar impairment to the meter

that susceptibility supervene if you prime a file too low for the voltage you are measuring.

2. Arrest the red cefficacious manage into the discollocation VĦmA jack. Arrest the sombre cefficacious manage into

the foot COM jack.

3. Switch the multimeter on via the ON-OFF switch.

4. To mete the voltage, carefully arrive-at the expend summits in the circumference delay

the tips of the multimeterfs probes.

5. Discaggravate and chronicles the metement.

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6. When cupeling is adequate, depend off the DMM; transport the cupel manages, and treasure

your DMM.

Use of the DMM as an Ohmmeter: To mete the hindrance (R) of a constituent

such as a resistor, the constituent must be disarelish from the circumference. You get get

an incorrect metement if the constituent is in the circumference. You may too impairment the

meter if the constituent is in the circumference and the circumference is too energized. This is the singly

DMM lection that requires the circumference to be disunited. You may mete circumference

hindrance up to 2000K ohms.

1. Depend the file primeor switch to an expend Ħ enhancement upper than the

expected ohms. For a 100 Ħ resistor, set the file switch on the 2000 Ħ

setting, etc.

2. Arrest the red cefficacious manage into the discollocation VĦmA jack. Arrest the sombre cefficacious manage into

the foot COM jack.

3. Switch on the multimeter via the On-OFF switch.

4. Arrive-at the cupel manages contemporaneously. The meter should discaggravate g0h ƒ¶, (Ohms)

5. Carefully arrive-at the expend summits in the circumference delay the tips of the probes to

mete the hindrance.

6. Discaggravate metement.

7. If the lection is g1h, set the file primeor switch to the direct upper Ohm (ƒ¶)

position.

8. When cupeling is adequate, depend off the DMM; transport the cupel manages and treasure your

DMM.

Use of the DMM as an Ammeter (Current meter): To mete prevalent (I) the manages of

the meter must be arelish into the circumference. Wherever the meter is introduceed into the

circumference produce assured that the red manage is hinderst to the + end of the battery ahanker the

circumference and that the sombre manage is hinderst to - end of the battery. It is very expressive that

the multimeter be used in succession as divorce of the circumference when measuring prevalent instead of

in analogous delayout of the circumference as when measuring voltage estrangements. Improper use

may impairment the meter and misfortune the smelt making the multimeter inoperable.

1. Depend the file Selector Switch to the 10 A (amperes) collocation. Always begin delay

the principal file if the amperage is mysterious.

2. Arrest the red cefficacious manage into the top10 A jack. Arrest the sombre cefficacious manage into the

foot COM jack.

3. Switch the multimeter on via the On-OFF switch.

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4. Introduce the multimeter in succession delay the circumference to be cupeled.

5. Discaggravate metement. If the lection is short than .2 A switch the red cefficacious manage to

the discollocation VĦmA jack and set the file primeor switch to the 200mA.

6. Discaggravate and chronicles metement. If you failure a prevalent lection in Amps instead of

milliAmperes, barely disunite the mA lection by 1000.

7. When cupeling is adequate, depend off the DMM; transport the cupel manages and treasure your

DMM.

Here is an stance of how largely you can misfortune a smelt if your DMM is used erroneously.

Assume you begined in the 200mA (0.2A) collocation and used the DMM as a prevalent meter

for a circumference delay a 1.5V battery and a 1ohm resistor; you would misfortune its smelt

immediately!

Ohmfs law, V = IR, is too symmetrical as I = V/R. Thus I = 1.5V/1ƒ¶ = 1.5A or 1,500 mA.

This is 7.5 ages the stipulation of the 0.2A enhancement. For this stance circumference you would failure to

use the 10A enhancement.

Always depend off your DMM when you feel adequated your metements by moving

the switch to the goffh collocation. Otherwise the DMM battery get be used up prematurely

and feel to be supplyd.

Maintenance:

.. Transport battery if not in use for hanker periods.

.. Treasure bisect in dry location

.. Other than the battery and the smelt, this DMM has no supplyefficacious divorces.

.. Repairs should be effected by a adapted technician.

Battery/smelt Replacement:

.. Transport the cupel manages ardispose the multimeter

.. Depend the bisect aggravate and transport twain screws delay Philips screwdriver.

.. Transport the follower shelter

.. Transport the battery or smelt and supply delay a new 9V battery or 250mA fastacting

fuse.

.. Supply caggravate and retighten screws.

Your DMM may too be used to produce AC Voltage Measurements; Transistor (hFE)

measurements, battery inculpate metements, and diode metements. However,

these metements get not be used in any of the physics trials in this LabPaq.

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PROCEDURES: Set up the subjoined basis board to use for these trials:

DATA TABLE:

Resistance installed on tint knots: ____Ħ; % indecision ____ (from tint knot)

DMM-Measured Hindrance ______ Ħ

Measured V

(V)

Measured Current

(A)

Calculated R = V/I

1.5V battery

3V battery

4.5V battery

Part 1: Precedently assembling the subjoined circumferences, set the DMM as an ohmmeter. Slide

the duty switch to Ħ and the dial file to 2 kĦ. Check the hindrance of the resistor

by arrive-ating the two DMM manages to the two wires extending from each cause of the

resistor. Chronicles this appreciate.

A. Your principal circumference get be of a 1.5V battery in its holder and a 100-ohm resistor.

You get use 3 unconjoined jumper cables to set up the circumference as illusionn underneath in the

regularity underneath.

1. Set the DMM as an ammeter.

Slide the duty switch to A

and the dial file to mA.

2. Connect the principal jumper cable

(1) to the privative end of the

battery holder and to the 100 Ħ resistor. Do this by barely opportunity the jaw of

an alligator curfollower at one end of a jumper cefficacious and firmly clasping that jaw

encircling the metal follower, wire, or extender of the ace to be arelish into the

circuit. Metal must arrive-at metal in all affinitys.

3. Connect the assist jumper cefficacious (2) to the other end of the resistor and the

sombre manage of the DMM.

4. Connect the third jumper cefficacious to (3) the red manage of the DMM and the

explicit end of the battery holder.

Remember that it is very expressive when measuring prevalent to use the

multimeter in succession, which resources that it is incause and divorce of the circumference

as illusionn aggravatehead. When measuring voltage estrangements the meter must

be in analogous, which resources it is delayout of the circumference as illusionn in B.

below. If you consmelt these procedures you get misfortune out the DMMfs

fuse!

5. Catch the mA lection and chronicles it in the basis board.

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84

6. You meted the prevalent at singly one summit, flatter it summit gP.h Is the prevalent the

same everywhinder in a lowly circumference relish this? To confront out, rearfile the

jumper cables and meter to mete the prevalent at a assist summit, flatter it

summit gQ.h Discuss your confrontings in your conclusions.

B. Transport the DMM from the aggravatehead circumference and hinder the circumference by connecting the

jumper cablesf alligator curtails that earlierly arelish the DMM delayin the

circuit.

1. Set the DMM as a voltmeter. Slide duty switch to V , and the file dial

to 2V.

2. Set up the DMM as a voltmeter, which requires that it be analogous to and

without of the deep circumference as illusionn in the direct regularity. Arrive-at the DMMfs

explicit red manage to the jumper cefficacious affinity at the explicit end of the

battery holder (A) and arrive-at the DMMfs privative sombre manage to the jumper

cefficacious affinity at the privative end of the

battery holder (B). Now catch the V lection

betwixt summits A and B and chronicles in the basis

table.

3. Reverse the DMM manages at summits A and

B by moving the sombre manage to summit A

and the red manage to summit B. Observe,

then chronicles and decipher your

observation.

4. Recollocation the voltmeter to catch a voltage lection betwixt A and C, principal delay

the manages in one collocation and then delay the manages reversed. Chronicles and

decipher these voltage lections.

5. Recollocation the voltmeter to catch a voltage lection betwixt C and D, principal delay

the manages in one collocation and then delay the manages reversed. Chronicles and

decipher these voltage lections. Note: You get deficiency to collectively discuss

these observations in your lab description tabulation.

Part 2:

A. Repeatedly set up the DMM as an

ammeter delayin a circumference as in the

earlier Divorce 1 A-1, but this age you

get add a assist 1.5V battery in

succession delay the principal 1.5V battery as

shown at upright.

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85

1. To do this you get barely introduce a assist battery holder and jumper cable

direct to the primary battery holder so that two batteries are in the circumference

betwixt the ammeter and the resister.

2. When the circumference is repeatedly adequate, catch the mA lection and chronicles in the

basis board.

B. Transport the DMM from the circumference illusionn in Divorce 2A aggravatehead and hinder that circumference.

1. Set up the DMM as a voltmeter

analogous to the circumference delay the manages

attached encircling twain batteries as

shown at upright.

2. Set the duty switch on V and

the file dial to 20V.

3. Catch a V lection and chronicles in the basis board.

Part 3:

A. Repeatedly set up the DMM as an ammeter as in Divorce 2A, but this age add a third

1.5V battery in succession delay the other two 1.5V batteries.

1. To do this you get barely introduce a third battery holder and jumper cefficacious direct to

the primary battery holder so that three batteries are now in the circumference

betwixt the ammeter and the resister.

2. When the circumference is repeatedly adequate, catch the mA lection and chronicles in the

basis board.

B. Transport the DMM from the three batteries and the resistor arelish in Divorce 3A

overhead and hinder that circumference.

1. Set up the DMM as a voltmeter analogous to the circumference delay the manages attached

encircling all three batteries.

2. Set the duty switch to V and the file dial to 20V.

3. Catch a V lection and chronicles in the basis board.

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86

Calculations and Graphing: For each of the three earlier procedures proportion the

hindrance from the meted prevalent and voltage: R = V/I.

1. Use an xy plant graph to graph voltage on the y-axis versus prevalent on the

x-axis.

2. Use the rectirectilinear fit trendrow duty of ExcelR to add the expand of the row to the

graph.

3. What is the import of the expand?

4. How do the graph and the expand of the row describe to Ohmfs law?

5. Can this succession of trials be considered a reality of Ohmfs law?

Why or why not?

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