General ecology | General Ecology

Short answers. Choose and answer four (4) questions from below. Clearly indicate the numbers of the questions you are answering. If the wrong number is indicated, points could be deducted. If more than four questions are answered, only the first four will be graded. Use your own words. If the answers are directly copied from the PowerPoint notes, points will be deducted. (10 pts. each)

  1. Whattypeofcompetitionisinvolvedintheenemyreleasehypothesis?Explainthe nature of this type of competition.
  2. Explain the difference between a generalist consumer and a specialist consumer. Give an example of each.
  3. Explain what ecological drift is and its relevance in community ecology.
  4. Explain what is “space for time substitution” in the context of ecological succession.
  5. Explainthedifferencesbetweenobligatemutualismandfacultativemutualism.
  6. Explain what a morphospecies is and its value in community ecology.
  7. Explain what is the green world hypothesis and by whom was it proposed.
  8. Contrast the Clementsian and Gleasonian models of succession.

Essay questions. Choose and answer two (2) questions from below. Clearly indicate the numbers of the questions you are answering. If the wrong number is indicated, points could be deducted. If more than two questions are answered, only the first two will be graded. Be careful about providing citation(s) where asked. Use your own words. If the answers are directly copied from the PowerPoint notes, points will be deducted. (30 pts. each)

9. Explainandcontrastwhattop-downandbottom-upeffectsofcommunitystructuring are. List some of the potential causes of each. Give an example of each effect using a peer-reviewed study. Give the citation by including the URL of the article.

10.Explain the Menge‒Sutherland model of disturbance and predation on community species diversity. What ecological property does the model illustrate? Describe one example from a peer-reviewed study that either supports or refutes the model. Give the citation by including the URL of the article.

11.Explain what an ecosystem engineer is and its potential effects on community dynamics. Describe one example from a peer-reviewed study. Give the citation by including the URL of the article.

12.Explain why herbivory still negatively impacts a plant even when the plant is not killed. What are some of the possible mechanisms that plants use to avoid herbivory? Provide explanations for the mechanisms.

13.Explain and contrast the succession models proposed by Connell and Slatyer (1977). Describe one example from a peer-reviewed study demonstrating one of these models. Give the citation by including the URL of the article.

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Bonus question. (10 points)

B1. Mathematically demonstrate the values of the zero population growth isoclines for both the prey and predator in a Lotka–Volterra model. Show your work.

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