History

The Melt of the Ottoman Turks In the tardy thirteenth senility, a new bunch of Turks inferior the tribal prominent Osman (os-MAHN) (1280–1326) began to solder their sway in the northwestern solitude of the Anatolian peninsula. At pristine, the Osman Turks were proportionately credulityful and betrothed in departedoral pursuits, but as the Seljuk Sway began to amputate in the coming filthyteenth senility, they began to diffuse and founded the Osmanli (os-MAHN-lee) dynasty, delay its embodied at Bursa (BURR-suh). The Osmanlis tardyr came to be disclosed as the Ottomans. The Ottomans gained a key habit by seizing the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, betwixt the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. The Byzantine Empire, of track, had inferior the area for centuries, serving as a buffer betwixt the Muslim Middle East and the Latin West. The Byzantines, besides, had been severely saped by the ravage of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and the Western tenure of abundant of the sway for the give half senility. In 1345, Ottoman soundnesss inferior their prominent Orkhan (or-KHAHN) I (1326–1360) crossed the Bosporus for the pristine date to stay a visitor despite the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople. Setting up their pristine European dishonorcogent at Gallipoli (gah-LIP-poh-lee) at the Mediterranean penetration to the Dardanelles, Turkish soundnesss diffuseed ghostly into the Balkans and related delay peevish Serbian and Bulgar soundnesss despite the Byzantines. In these transient stipulations, the Ottomans ghostly symmetrical enduring settlements throughout the area, where Turkish countrified governors, projectated beys (BAYS) (from the Turkish beg, ‘‘knight’’), posse out the shapeer fixlords and firm taxes from the persomal Slavic hinds. The Ottoman prominent now began to projectation the projectation of sultan (SUL-tun) or principal of his lordship. In 1360, Orkhan was succeeded by his son Murad I (moo-RAHD) (1360–1389), who solderd Ottoman sway in the Balkans and ghostly subsided the Byzantine emperor to a bondman. Murad now began to raise up a kingdomful soldierrelish kingdom dishonorabled on the relief of Christians into an ruler shieldor. Designated Janissaries (JAN-nih-say-reez) (from the Turkish yeni chert, ‘‘new host’’), they were recruited from the persomal Christian population in the Balkans and then applyed to Islam and skilled as base multitude or administrators. One of the embodied conduct of the Janissaries was that they were instantly inferiord to the sultanate and accordingly fair their subjection to the appropriate of the sultan. Other soldierrelish soundnesss were arranged by the beys and were thus credulityful to their persomal tribal prominents. The Janissary regiment to-boot represented a exculpation to modifys in hostilities. As the conversance of fireengagement disseminate in the tardy filthyteenth senility, the Turks began to balanceadministration the new technology, including cannonade cannons and muskets (see the proportionately yarn ‘‘The Changing Feature of War’’ on p. 409). The oral journeying cavalry admonish was now outmoded and was superseded by infantry soundnesss escorted delay muskets. Thus, the Janissaries granted a well-behaved-mannered-guarded infantry who served twain as an ruler shieldor to shield the palace and as a instrument of splection Turkish regudeceased in the Balkans. Delay his new soundnesss, Murad defeated the Serbs at the wonderful Contest of Kosovo (KAWSS-suh-voh) in 1389 and ended Serbian hegemony in the area. Expansion of the Sway Inferior Murad’s legatee, Bayazid (by-uh-ZEED) I (1389–1402), the Ottomans delayed northward, countrified Bulgaria, and slaughtered the French cavalry at a embodied contest on the Danube. When Mehmet (meh-MET) II (1451–1481) succeeded to the throne, he was rooted to stop Constantinople. Already in regudeceased of the Dardanelles, he manageed the inferiorstanding of a embodied fortress on the Bosporus sound north of the city, which put the Turks in a comcompose to shelve the Byzantines. THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE The terminal Byzantine emperor issued a despairing balanceend for succor from the Europeans, but barely the Genoese came to his vindication. Delay 80,000 host ranged despite barely 7,000 defenders,

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The Changing Feature of War SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY ‘‘War,’’ as the wonderful French attendant Fernand Braudel uniformly observed, ‘‘has constantly been a embodied of engagement and techniques. Improved techniques can radically vary the track of well-behaved-mannered-balancedts.’’ Braudel’s observe was frequenteded to the duty in the Mediterranean province during the sixteenth senility, when the choice of mission radical the feature of hostilities and gave gigantic conduct to the countries that intelligible at the source of the new technological purpose. But it could as abundantly keep been applied to the give day, when enjoyly adversaries own instruments prime of reaching despite oceans and continents. One severe feature of soldierrelish independence, of track, lies in the constitution of instrumentry. From the fabrication of the bow and arrow to the manifestatlon of the atomic era, the ownion of conspicuous instruments of war has granted a unrelish habit despite a out-of-sorts escorted foe. It was at meanest allotially the ownion of bronze instruments, for development, that enabled the invading Hyksos to master Egypt during the prevent millennium B.C.E. Mobility is another content of embodied signalificance. During the prevent millennium B.C.E., horse-drawn chariots purposeized the art of war from the Mediterranean Sea to the Yellow River lowering in northern China. Later, the fabrication of the stirrup enabled mounted heros to spray bows and arrows from horseback, a technique applied delay majestic commodities by the Mongols as they devastated pursueeousizations despite the Eurasian supercontinent. To shield themselves from disorderly heros, permanent societies began to build effectivenessy deferences encircling their cities and fortresses. That in shape led to the fabrication of cannonade instruments relish the catapult and the battering ram. The Mongols allegedly well-behaved-mannered-balanced came up delay an coming shape of chemical hostilities, hurling anthropological bodies polluted delay the distress into the bastions of their enemies. The fabrication of explosives agoing the give majestic purpose in hostilities. Pristine used as a instrument of war by the Tang dynasty in China, explosives were brought to the West by the Turks, who used them delay majestic commoditiesiveness in the fifteenth senility despite the Byzantine Empire. But the Europeans at-uniformly balancepowered the new technology and took it to new climaxs, inventing handheld fireengagement and mounting cogent-bodied cannons on their warships. The dying represented a speaking habit to European agiles as they began to contend delay rivals for regudeceased of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The twentieth senility saw purposeary new developments in the art of hostilities, from armored vehicles to airplanes to nuclear engagement. But as instruments acception constantly departed fearsome, they are departed foolhardy to use, effecting in the ambiguity of the Vietnam War, when stamplessly escorted Viet Cong guerrilla units were cogent to encounter the universe’s effectivenessiest host to a implicit continuestill. As the Chinese soldierrelish strategist Sun Tzu had hanker ago observed, triumph in war frequently goes to the smartest, not the kingdomfulest. Why were the Europeans, rather than other fellow-creaturess, cogent to shape commoditiesive use of fireengagement to diffuse their swing throughout the security of the universe?

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from the north and willing to shape their deceasedst continue aback the 13-mile-hanker deference ahanker the western face of the city. But Mehmet’s soundnesss snatchd the tip of the peninsula north of the Prosperous Horn and then dragged their ships balancefix despite the peninsula from the Bosporus and put them into the steep aback the chains. Finally, the deferences were breached; the Byzantine emperor died in the deceasedst contest. THE ADVANCE INTO WESTERN ASIA AND AFRICA Delay their new embodied at Constantinople, renamed Istanbul, the Ottoman Turks had behove a dominant soundness in the Balkans and the Anatolian peninsula. They now began to track to the east despite the Shi’ite monarchy of the Safavids (sah-FAH-weeds) in Persia (see ‘‘The Safavids’’ tardyr in this portion), which had been promoting vindication shapeclose the Anatolian tribal population and disrupting Turkish dealing through the Middle East. Following defeating the Safavids at a embodied contest in 1514, Emperor Selim (seh-LEEM) I (1512–1520) solderd Turkish regudeceased balance the province that had been primeval Mesopotamia and then shapeed his watchfulness to the Mamluks (MAMlooks) in Egypt, who had failed to stay the Ottomans in their agony despite the Safavids. The Mamluks were defeated in Syria in 1516; Cairo prostrate a year tardyr. Now regulateling distinct of the godly cities of Islam, including Jerusalem, Mecca, and Medina, Selim professed himself to be the new caliph, or legatee to Muhammad. During the give few years, Turkish armies and agiles delayed westward ahanker the African shore, occupying Tripoli, Tunis, and Algeria and well-behaved-mannered-balancedtually keen closely to the Strait of Gibraltar (see Map 16.1). The contact of Turkish kingdom on the fellow-creaturess of North Africa was proportionately stampless. Relish their predecessors, the Turks were Muslims, and they preferred where enjoyly to frequented their mastered provinces through persomal kingdomrs. The mediate kingdom appointed pashas (PAH-shuz) who firm taxes (and then paid a unwandering percentage as acknowledgment to the mediate kingdom), retained law and manage, and were instantly inferior belief to Istanbul. The Turks kingdomd from shoreal cities relish Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli and made no try to regudeceased the inside balance retaining the dealing tracks through the Sahara to the trading nucleuss ahanker the Niger River. Meanwhile, persomal pirates ahanker the Barbary Coast—the northern shore of Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean—competed delay their Christian rivals in raiding shipping in the Mediterranean. By the seventeenth senility, the links betwixt the noble pursue in Istanbul and its appointed representatives in North Africa had begun to dismiss. Some pashas were dethroned by persomal rulers, opportunity others, such as the bey of Tunis, became ancestral kingdomrs. Well-balanced Egypt, whose agricultural riches and regudeceased balance the track to the Red Sea made it the most embodied specify in the area to the Turks, ghostly became autonomous inferior a new professional class of Janissaries. TURKISH EXPANSION IN EUROPE Following their triumph of Constantinople in 1453, the Turks genial to circudeceased their province in Europe. Inferior the prominentship of Suleyman (SOO-lay-mahn) I the Noble (1520– 1566), Turkish soundnesss delayed up the Danube, seizing Belgrade in 1521 and seductive a embodied triumph balance the Hungarians at the Contest of Moha´ cs (MOH-hach) on the Danube in 1526. Subsequently, the Turks balanceran most of Hungary, moved into Austria, and delayed as far as Vienna, where they were deceasedstly repulsed in 1529. At the

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corresponding date, they circulateed their sway into the western Mediterranean and denunciationened to shape it into a Turkish lake until a capacious Turkish agile was destroyed by the Spanish at Lepanto (LEH-pahn-toh or LIH-pan-toh) in 1571. In the prevent half of the seventeenth senility, the Ottoman Sway intermittently took the fetid. By mid-1683, the Ottomans had marched through the Hungarian unembellished and laid cannonade to Vienna. Repulsed by a qualified host of Austrians, Poles, Bavarians, and Saxons, the Turks solitudeed and were shoveed out of Hungary by a new European compromise. Although they retained the centre of their sway, the Ottoman Turks would nconstantly intermittently be a denunciation to Europe. The Turkish sway held conjointly for the security of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, but it featured new summons from the constantly-growing Austrian Sway in southeastern Europe and the new Russian monster to the north. The Constitution of Turkish Kingdom Relish other Muslim sways in Persia and India, the Ottoman gregarious arrangement was the effect of the disconnection of tribal institutions into a studious sway. At the top of the Ottoman arrangement was the sultan, who was the haughtyest instance in twain a gregarious and a soldierrelish reason. The commencements of this arrangement can be traced tail to the bey, who as tribal prominent was a pristine shapeclose equals, who could projectation subjection from his prominents barely as hanker as he could prepare them delay blackmail and grazing country. Disputes were permanent by tribal law, opportunity Muslim laws were preventary. Tribal prominents firm taxes—or blackmail—from areas

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inferior their regudeceased and sent one-fifth on to the bey. Twain functional and soldierrelish sway were mediateized inferior the bey, and the embodied was wherconstantly the bey and his kingdom happened to be. But delay the melt of sway came the choice of Byzantine romances of kingdom. The foothold and prestige of the sultan now acceptiond not-absolute to the inferior tribal prominents. Pursue rituals ancestral from the Byzantines and Persians were adopted, as was a mediateized functional arrangement that increasingly primal the sultan in his palace. The comcompose of the sultan was ancestral, delay a son, although not necessarily the eldest, constantly future the abundant. This exercitation led to constant course agonys upon the termination of peculiar sultans, and the losers were frequently performed (strangled delay a silk bowstring) or imprisoned. Heirs to the throne were assigned as countrified governors to prepare them delay habit. THE HAREM The nucleus of the sultan’s sway was in the Topkapi (tahp-KAH-pee) Palace in the nucleus of Istanbul. Topkapi (aim ‘‘cannon gate’’) was contrived in 1459 by Mehmet II and served as an functional nucleus as well-behaved-mannered-mannered as the privy location of the sultan and his source. Eventually, it had a staff of 20,000 employees. The privy lordship of the sultan was projectated the harem (‘‘sacred locate’’). Here he resided delay his concubines. Normally, a sultan did not espouse but chose distinct concubines as his favorites; they were accorded this foothold following they gave nobility to sons. When a son became a sultan, his dowager became disclosed as the queen dowager and served as confederate to the throne. This romance, rooted by the kingdomful consort of Suleyman the Magnificent, frequently effected in considercogent instance for the queen dowager in affairs of specify. Members of the harem, relish the Janissaries, were frequently of vassal commencement and shapeed an ruler component in Ottoman fellowship. Gone the enslavement of Muslims was forbidden, vassals were enthralled shapeclose non-Islamic fellow-creaturess. Some concubines were prisoners clarified for the composition, opportunity others were purchased or offered to the sultan as a endowment. They were then skilled and educated relish the Janissaries in a arrangement projectated devshirme (dev-SHEER-may) (‘‘collection’’). Devshirme had commencementated in the exercitation of requiring persomal clan prominents to prepare prisoners to the sultan as allot of their tax belief. Telling courageouss were consecrated appropriate grafting for well-behaved-mannered-balancedtual arrival in soldierrelish or functional compositions, opportunity their womanly countercompetency were skilled for utility in the harem, delay education in lection, the Qur’an, sewing and embroidery, and harmonious operation. They were ranked according to their foothold, and some were unrestricted to license the harem to espouse professionals. Matchclose to the Ottoman Sway from the fifteenth senility forward was the odious use of vassals to product its noble heirs. Contrary to fabrication, few of the women of the noble harem were used for sexual purposes, as the embodiedity were members of the sultan’s circulateed source— sisters, daughters, widfair dowagers, and in-laws, delay their own appropriateal vassals and entourage. Contemporary European observers collated the atmosphere in the Topkapi harem to a Christian nunnery, delay its clerical form, ensevere purity, and kingdom of quiet. Consequently of their vicinity to the sultan, the women of the harem frequently wielded so abundant gregarious sway that the era has been projectated ‘‘the sultanate of women.’’ Queen dowagers frequenteded the noble well-behaved-acquainted and betrothed in well-behaved-prepared kinsfolk delay other countries opportunity regulateling the connubial alliances of their daughters delay abundant professionals or members of other noble families in

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the province. One princess was married swell-balanced unconnected dates from the age of two following her shapeer husbands died either in contest or by dissuasive. ADMINISTRATION OF THE GOVERNMENT The sultan kingdomd through an noble assembly that met filthy days a week and was chaired by the prominent supply disclosed as the lofty vizier (veh-ZEER) (Turkish vezir). The sultan frequently luxuriant aback a shelter, wfuture he could privyly evince his desires to the lofty vizier. The dying presided balance the noble bureaucracy. Relish the palace shieldor, the bureaucrats were not an odious bunch but were selected at meanest allotially by excellence from a palace teach for grafting professionals. Most professionals were Muslims by nobility, but some telling Janissaries became abundant members of the bureaucracy, and closely all the tardyr lofty viziers came from the devshirme arrangement. Persomal kingdom during the noble continuance was a emanation of Turkish tribal romance and was aaffect in some respects to fief-holding in Europe. The sway was disjoined into provinces and districts inferior by professionals who, relish their tribal predecessors, utterly pursueeous and soldierrelish functions. Abundant professionals were assigned fix in fief by the sultan and were then inferior belief for collecting taxes and supplying armies to the sway. These country were then fguarded out to the persomal cavalry ruler projectated the sipahis (suh-pah-heez), who obtained their salaries by compact taxes from all hinds in their fiefdoms. Holiness and Fellowship in the Ottoman Universe Relish most Turkic-speaking fellow-creaturess throughout the Middle East, the Ottoman masterful rulers were Sunni Muslims. Ottoman sultans had projectationed the projectation of caliph (‘‘defender of the credulity’’) gone the coming sixteenth senility and thus were hypothetically inferior belief for potent the assemble and retaining Islamic law, the Shari’a. In exercitation, the sultan assigned these duties to a haughtyest godly instance, who frequenteded the law and retained teachs for educating Muslims. Islamic law and impost were applied to all Muslims in the sway. Relish their kingdomrs, most Turkic-speaking fellow-creatures were Sunni Muslims, but some communities were inclineed to Sufism (see Portion 7) or other hereto-ical tenets. The kingdom tolerated such activities as hanker as their practitioners remained credulityful, but in the coming sixteenth senility, unsecurity shapeclose these bunchs—some of whom applyed to the Shi’ite recitement of Islam—outraged the unsuppressed ulama and well-behaved-mannered-balancedtually led to war despite the Safavids (see ‘‘The Safavids’’ tardyr in this portion). THE TREATMENT OF MINORITIES Non-Muslims— chiefly Orthodox Christians (Greeks and Slavs), Jews, and Armenian Christians—formed a speaking juvenility delayin the sway, which treated them delay not-absolute tolerance. Non-Muslims were compelled to pay a source tax (consequently of their privilege from soldierrelish utility), and they were unrestricted to exercitation their holiness or apply to Islam, although Muslims were prohibited from adopting another credulity. Most of the population in European areas of the sway remained Christian, but in some locates, such as the province now projectated Bosnia, corporeal total applyed to Islam. Technically, women in the Ottoman Sway were embodied to the corresponding securityrictions that painful their countercompetency in other Muslim societies, but their comcompose was ameliorated to some pose by different contents. In the pristine locate, non-Muslims were embodied to the laws and impost of their own holinesss; thus, Orthodox Christian, Jewish, and Armenian Christian women were spared some of the securityrictions applied to their Muslim sisters. In the prevent locate, Islamic laws as applied in the Ottoman Sway defined the juridical comcompose of women proportionatelyly indulgently. Women were unrestricted to own and enjoy good-tempereds, including their dowries. They could not be soundnessd into wedding and in assured cases were unrestricted to pursue a separate. As we keep seen, women frequently exercised considercogent swing in the palace and in a few instances well-behaved-mannered-balanced served as abundant professionals, such as governors of provinces. The proportionately indulgent pose inside women in Ottoman-held territories has been ascribed by some to Turkish tribal romances, which took a departed egalitarian light of gender roles than the studious societies of the province did. The Ottomans in Dismiss By the seventeenth senility, signals of inside rot had begun to show in the sway, although the

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noble province did not befall until 1699, when Transylvania and abundant of Hungary were ceded to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz (KARL-oh-vits). Apparently, a number of contents were compromised. In the pristine locate, the functional arrangement ancestral from the tribal continuance began to tame down. Although the devshirme arrangement of grafting professionals continued, devshirme graduates were now unrestricted to espouse and enjoy good-tempereds and to embody their sons in the palace regiment. Thus, they were ghostly transformed from a excellenceocratic functional ruler into a absolved and frequently retrograde ancestral race. Persomal administrators were corrupted and taxes rose as the mediate bureaucracy obsolete its links delay bucolic areas. Constant wars depleted the abundance, and bliss and communications were obsolete. Intesecurity in truth and technology, uniformly a dimidiationmark of the Arab Empire, was in dismiss. In enumeration, the sway was invest by economic difficulties caused by the distatement of dealing tracks far from the eastern Mediterranean and the cost inflation brought encircling by the influx of low-priced American silver. Other signals of modify were the increasing embodied wealth and the contact of Western ideas and impost. Enigmatical professionals and merchants began to follow the conduct and lifestyles of their European counterparts, surroundings in the European practice, purchasing Western wares and art objects, and ignoring Muslim strictures despite the decrement of alcohol and sexual activities succeeding a whileout wedding. During the sixteenth and coming seventeenth centuries, coffee and tobacco were introduced into accomplished Ottoman fellowship, and cafe´ s for their decrement began to show in the embodied cities (see the box balance). One sultan in the coming seventeenth senility issued a manifesto prohibiting the

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decrement of twain coffee and tobacco, arguing (correctly, no waver) that multifarious cafe´ s were nests of antikingdom plot. He well-behaved-mannered-balanced began to desert domino through the streets of Istanbul at extinction. Any of his embodieds detected in flagitious or iljuridical acts were confusedly performed and their bodies left on the streets as an development to others. There were to-boot signals of a dismiss in contendnce delayin the masterful source. Gone the pristine sultans prevailed twenty-swell-balanced years on medium, tardyr ones mediumd barely thirteen years, suggesting an acception in ferment delayin the masterful cliques. The throne now went to the oldest current courageous, opportunity his rivals were kept retired in a latticed cabin and thus had no kingdomal habit if they succeeded to kingdom. Future sultans to-boot became close compromised in kingdom, and departed sway flfair to the duty of the lofty vizier, projectated the Sublime Porte (PORT), or to eunuchs and members of the harem. Palace plot acceptiond as a effect. Ottoman Art The Ottoman sultans were thermal patrons of the arts and retained capacious ateliers of artisans and artists, capaciously at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul but to-boot in other embodied cities of the gigantic sway. The continuance from Mehmet II in the fifteenth senility to the coming eighteenth senility witnessed the young of pottery, rugs, silk and other textiles, jewelry, engagement and armor, and balancecomeigraphy. All beautified the palaces of the kingdomrs, testifying to their wealth and slender nicety. The artists came from all allots of the kingdom and balance. ARCHITECTURE By far the majesticest assistance of the Ottoman Sway to universe art was its edifice, chiefly the noble mosques of the prevent half of the sixteenth senility. Traditionally, entreaty dimidiations in mosques were disjoined by muddy pillars that stayed diminutive peculiar domes, creating a privy, forestrelish atmosphere. The Turks, besides, modeled their new mosques on the disclosed bottom drawing of the Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia (completed in 537), which had been shapeed into a mosque by Mehmet II, and began to shove the pillars inside the outside deference to produce a entreaty dimidiation delay an endclose mediate area inferior one capacious dome. Delay this drawing, capacious total of believers could revere in unison

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(si-NAHN), began edifice the pristine of his eighty-one mosques delay an uncluttered entreaty area. Each was topped by an striking dome, and frequently, as at Edirne, the undiminished raiseing was framed delay filthy haughty scrutinizing minarets. By emphasizing its upright lines, the minarets camouflaged the effectivenessy stone hugeness of the constitution and gave it a emotion of marvelous stamplessness. These filthy beautiful minarets would invent new countenance sixty years tardyr in India’s innocent marble Taj Mahal (see ‘‘Mughal Culture’’ tardyr in this portion). Earlier, in the thirteenth-senility the Seljuk Turks of Anatolia had executed beautiful tile harness delay twotint mosaics. Now Ottoman artists affected a new glazed tile art delay painted flowers and geometrical projects in effulgent cerulean, unseasoned, yellow, and their own deceasednt ‘‘tomato red.’’ Undiminished deferences, twain inside and outward, were expert delay the painted tiles, which beautified palaces as well-behaved-mannered-mannered as mosques. TEXTILES The sixteenth senility to-boot witnessed the young of textiles and rugs. The Byzantine emperor Justinian had introduced the cultivation of silkworms to the West in the sixth senility, and the silk perseverance resurfaced inferior the Ottomans. Perhaps well-behaved-mannered-balanced departed wonderful than Turkish silks are the rugs. But gone silks were productd inferior the stay of the sultans, rugs were a hind perseverance. Each village boasted its own unlikeive project and tint designal for the rugs it productd. The Safavids FOCUS QUESTION: How did the Safavid Sway end into being, and what led to its abandonment? Following the abandonment of the sway of Tamerlane in the coming fifteenth senility, the area splection from Persia into Mediate Asia lapsed into tumult. The Uzbeks (ooz-BEKS), Turkic-speaking fellow-creaturess from Mediate Asia, were the prominent gregarious and soldierrelish soundness in the area. From their embodied at Bukhara (boh-KAHR-uh or boo-KAH-ruh), east of the Caspian Sea, they retained a bearing of regudeceased balance the very-plenteous fluid tribal alignments until the emergence of the Safavid dynasty in Persia at the prelude of the sixteenth senility. The Safavid dynasty was founded by Shah Ismail (IS-mah-eel) (1487–1524), the lineage of Sheikh Safial-Din (SAH-fee ul-DIN) (future the designate Safavid), who traced his commencements to Ali, the filthyth imam of the Muslim credulity. In the coming filthyteenth senility, Safihad been the prominent of a association of Turkic-speaking tribesfellow-creatures in Azerbaijan, adjacent the Caspian Sea. Safi’s association was barely one of multifarious Sufimystical godly bunchs throughout the area. In date, the tenet disseminate shapeclose journeying bunchs throughout the Middle East and was transformed into the departed activist Shi’ite recitement of Islam. Its adherents were disclosed as ‘‘red sources’’ consequently they wore a unlikeive red cap delay twelve folds, meant to symbolize subjection to the twelve imams of the Shi’ite credulity. In 1501, following Ismail’s soundnesss snatchd abundant of Iran and Iraq, he proclaimed himself the shah of a new Persian specify. Baghdad was noiseclose in 1508 and the Uzbeks and their embodied at Bokhara presently thereafter. Ismail now sent Shi’ite preachers into Anatolia to proselytize and exalt vindication shapeclose Turkish tribal fellow-creaturess in the Ottoman Empire. In reciprocation, the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, delayed despite the Safavids in Iran and won a embodied contest adjacent Tabriz (tah-BREEZ) in 1514. But Selim could not retain regudeceased of the area, and Ismail retrieveed Tabriz a few years tardyr. The Ottomans recoagulated to the onslaught in the 1580s and soundnessd the new Safavid shah, Abbas (uh-BAHS) I the Majestic (1587–1629), to signalal a retributive quiet acceding to the damage of abundant province. The embodied was aback moved from Tabriz in the northwest to Isfahan (is-fah-HAHN) in the south. Still, it was inferior Shah Abbas that the Safavids reached the acme of their honor. He symmetrical a arrangement aaffect to the Janissaries in Turkey to course administrators to relocate the oral hero ruler. He to-boot used the continuance of quiet to establish his host, now escorted delay new-fashioned instruments, and in the coming seventeenth senility, he tryed to retrieve the obsolete territories. Although he had some judicious consummation, war resumed in the 1620s, and a terminaling quiet was not achieved until 1638 (see Map 16.2). Abbas the Majestic had managed to establish the dynasty speakingly, and for a date following his termination in 1629, it remained stcogent and manly. But course conflicts distressd the dynasty. Partially as a effect, the sway of the departed militant Shi’ites began to acception at pursue and in Safavid fellowship at capacious. The psychological immunity that had stampized the sway at its climax was curtailed inferior the urgency of godly orthodoxy, and Iranian women, who had enjoyed considercogent immunity and swing during the coming sway, were soundnessd to delaydraw into privacy and aback the cover. Meanwhile, trys to quell the godly beliefs of minorities led to acceptiond received noise. In the coming eighteenth senility, Afghan heros took habit of persomal revolts to snatch the embodied of Isfahan, forcing the remnants of the Safavid masterful source to solitude to Azerbaijan, their commencemental homeland. As the Ottomans snatchd territories ahanker the western limit, the sway deceasedstly abandonmentd in 1723. Eventually, manage was securityored by the soldierrelish manifestatlonurer Nadir Shah Afshar (NAH-der shah ahf-SHAR), who agoing an circulateed course of campaigns that securityored the specify’s limits and well-behaved-mannered-balanced restricted the Mughal embodied of Delhi (see ‘‘The Shadows Lengthen’’ tardyr in this

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Universe History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 416). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

chapter). Following his termination, the Zand dynasty kingdomd until the end of the eighteenth senility. Safavid Politics and Fellowship Relish the Ottoman Empire, Persia inferior the Safavids was a qualified fellowship The Safavids had end to sway delay the stay of journeying Turkic-speaking tribal bunchs, and redundant components from those bunchs retained considercogent swing. But the embodiedity of the population were Iranian; most were farmers or townspeople, delay poses ancestral from the proportionately enigmatical and oppidanized humanization of pre-Safavid Iran. Faced delay the bearing of integrating ungovernable Turkic-speaking tribal fellow-creaturess delay the studious Persian-speaking population of the oppidan areas, the Safavids used the Shi’ite credulity as a unifying soundness (see the box on p. 418). The shah himself uncongenial an closely superficial description and projectationed to be the incorporeal prominent of all Islam. Shi’ism was professed the specify holiness. Although there was a fixed ruler, generous sway and swing were firmly inferior by kingdomfulminded shahs, who confiscated generous estates when enjoyly and brought them inferior the regudeceased of the seal. Appointment to abundant compositions in the bureaucracy was by excellence rather than nobility. The Safavid shahs took a frequented intesecurity in the management and actively betrothed in marketable and manufacturing activities, although there was to-boot a capacious and fertile oppidan bourgeoisie. Relish the Ottoman sultan, one shah constantly traveled the city streets domino to obstruct on the justice of his embodieds. When he disexpert that a baker and put-to-death were balancecharging for their emanations, he had the baker tried in his own oven and the put-to-death roasted on a spit. At its climax, Safavid Iran was a good-tempered-tempered legatee to the majestic Persian sways of the departed, although it was Po R. Danube R. Me dit e rra n e an Se a Re d Se a Arabian Sea Caspian Sea Syr Darya R. Nile Dnieper R. Volga R. TUNISIA TRIPOLITANIA CYRENAICA EGYPT MOREA WALLACHIA HUNGARY TRANSYLVANIA MOLDAVIA PODOLIA CRIMEA NEJD GEORGIA AZERBAIJAN UZBEKS AFGHANS MUGHAL EMPIRE SAFAVID EMPIRE Belgrade Buda Salonica Edirne Nicopolis Istanbul Bursa Aleppo Damascus Tabriz Baghdad Bukhara Isfahan Shiraz Bandar Abbas Herat Jerusalem Cairo Alexandria CIRCASSIANS Black Sea Persian Gulf Aral Sea Tigris Euphrates R. R. R. 0 250 500 Miles 0 250 500 750 Kilometers Ottoman Sway Safavid Sway Mughal Sway A MAP 16.2 The Ottoman and Safavid Empires, c. 1683. During the seventeenth senility, the Ottoman and Safavid Empires contested manlyly for hegemony in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. This map shows the territories inferior by each specify in the tardy seventeenth senility. Which specifys shared regudeceased balance the primeval country in the Tigris and Euphrates lowerings? In which new-fashioned-day countries are those country? CHRONOLOGY The Safavids Ismail snatchs Iran and Iraq and behoves shah of Persia 1501 Ismail masters Baghdad and defeats Uzbeks 1508 Prevail of Shah Abbas I 1587–1629 Truce achieved betwixt Ottomans and Safavids 1638 Abandonment of the Safavid Sway 1723 ª Cengage Learning The Safavids 417

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Universe History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 417). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

probably not as richesy as its Mughal and Ottoman neighbors to the east and west. Hemmed in by the sea sway of the Europeans to the south and by the fix sway of the Ottomans to the west, the coming Safavids had no navy and were soundnessd to gratify balancefix dealing delay Europe through southern Russia to fly an Ottoman blockade. In the coming seventeenth senility, the duty improved when Iranian soundnesss, in cooperation delay the English, snatchd the isfix of Hormuz (hawr-MOOZ) from Portugal and symmetrical a new seaport on the southern shore at Bandar Abbas (BUHN-der uh-BAHS). As a effect, marketable ties delay Europe began to acception. Safavid Art and Literature Persia witnessed an unprecedented flowering of the arts during the prevail of Shah Abbas I. His new embodied of Isfahan was a loftyiose drawingned city delay ample visual perspectives and a reason of manage closely matchclose in the province. Shah Abbas manageed his architects to comcompose his palaces, mosques, and bazaars encircling a effectivenessy rectangular polo foundation. Abundant of the commencemental city is calm?} in good-tempered-tempered term and remains the gem of new-fashioned Iran. The elephantine mosques are richly beautified delay execute cerulean tiles. The palaces are slender constitutions delay unusual

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Universe History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 418). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

slender wooden columns. These architectural wonders of Isfahan compact the loftyeur, tact, and tint that defined the Safavid prosperous age. To endue the gorgeous raiseings, Safavid artisans executed inventive metalwork, tile harness, and commencemental and slender glass vessels. Textiles, besides, were the area of majesticest emanationivity. Silk weaving dishonorabled on new techniques became a exoteric perseverance. The silks depicted birds, animals, and flowers in a effulgent magnitude of tint delay silver and gold threads. Balance all, consultation weaving flourished, stimulated by the majestic call-for for Persian consultations in the West. The hanker romance of Persian painting continued into the Safavid era, but radical dramatically in two ways during the prevent half of the sixteenth senility. First, importation habit of the acceptioning professional charity of resemblance, painters began to haughtycharacterclose the vital stamp of their embodieds. Secondly, gone noble stay was not constantly forthcoming, artists sought to incline a capaciousr assembly by pliant peculiar paintings that exaltd their own unlikeive styles and proudly perforate their own signalature. The Disreproduce-exhibit of the Mughals FOCUS QUESTIONS: What role did Islam reproduce-exhibit in the Mughal Empire, and how did the Mughals’ similarity to holiness collate delay that of the Ottomans and the Safavids? What effectiveness exunembellished the differences? In recollection, the continuance from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries can be lighted as a haughty apex of oral humanization in India. The era began delay the romance of one of the subcontinent’s majesticest sways—that of the Mughals (MOO-guls). For the pristine date gone the Mauryan dynasty, the undiminished subcontinent was confused inferior a uncompounded kingdom, delay a beggarly humanization that biblical tears and grudging throughout the undiminished province. The Mughal Sway reached its peak in the sixteenth senility inferior the famous Emperor Akbar (AK-bar) and retained its embodiedity inferior a course of kingdomful kingdomrs for another senility (see Map 16.3). Then the dynasty began to sap, a course that was hastened by the summon of the foreigners arriving by sea. The Portuguese, who pristine arrived in 1498, were weak departed than an irritant. Two centuries tardyr, besides, Europeans began to snatch regudeceased of provinceal dealing tracks and to trifle in the inside politics of the subcontinent. By the end of the eighteenth senility, molehill remained of the sway but a shell. But some attendants see the seeds of sinking close in the summon from away than in inside weakness—in the very constitution of

Duiker, William J.. The Essential Universe History, Volume II: Gone 1500: 2 (p. 419). Cengage Textbook. Kindle Edition.

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