Organizational behavior chapter 8 multiple choice questions

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Multiple Choice Quiz
Any nonroutine opportunity in which employees must search for alternative solutions is called:
A) a nonprogrammed decision.
B) satisfacing.
C) an implicit favourite.
D) postdecisional justification.
E) escalation of commitment.
What decision making process allows people to select the preferred solution without the need to identify or evaluate alternative choices?
A) Scenario planning
B) Programmed decision
C) Escalation of commitment
D) Satisficing
E) Systematic evaluation
According to the rational choice decision making process, what should occur immediately after identifying the problem?
A) Develop alternative solutions
B) Choose the best alternative
C) Choose the best decision process
D) Evaluate decision outcomes
E) None of the above
A conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs is:
A) a problem.
B) decisionmaking.
C) an opportunity.
D) a symptom.
E) diagnostic skill.
A deviation between the current and the desired situation is:
A) expected utility.
B) feedback.
C) an emotion.
D) a problem.
E) rational choice.
The rational choice model of decision making is often NOT used because:
A) it ignores the fact that emotions also influence the decisionmaking process.
B) people cannot or will not process the large amount of information needed to identify the best solution.
C) people have difficulty recognizing when their choices have failed.
D) people have difficulty recognizing problems.
E) all of the above.
The argument that people process limited and imperfect information and rarely select the best choice is referred to as:
A) maximization.
B) implicit favourite.
C) intuition.
D) bounded rationality.
E) scenario planning.
In contrast to the rational choice model of decision making, organizational scholar, Herbert Simon argued that people process limited and imperfect information. Herbert Simon was suggesting that people engage in:
A) maximization.
B) scenario planning.
C) bounded rationality.
D) intuition.
E) self-justification.
Which of the following refers to the tendency to select a solution that is “good enough” rather than “the best”?
A) Post-decisional justification
B) Satisficing
C) Selective attention
D) Evaluation apprehension
E) Maximizing
Which of the following refers to the ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and to select the best course of action without conscious reasoning?
A) Satisficing
B) Tacit knowledge
C) Intuition
D) Selective attention
E) Post-decisional justification
The perceptual distortion that involves justifying choices by unconsciously inflating the quality of the selected option and deflating the quality of the discarded option is:
A) scenario planning.
B) post-decisional justification.
C) intuition.
D) escalation of commitment.
E) prospect theory.
Which of these is the tendency to repeat an apparently bad decision or allocate more resources to a failing course of action?
A) Programmed decision
B) Satisficing
C) Selective attention
D) Post-decisional justification
E) Escalation of commitment
Separating decision choosing from decision evaluation tends to:
A) minimize escalation of commitment.
B) increase satisficing.
C) discourage intuition.
D) increase the use of programmed decision-making.
E) decrease satisficing.
Employee involvement in decision making includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) potentially improves decision quality.
B) ensures others in the organizations are alerted to customer problems.
C) strengthens employee commitment to the decision.
D) improves the likelihood of choosing the best alternative.
E) reduces perceptions of fairness.
The best level of employee involvement depends on:
A) the decision structure.
B) source of decision knowledge.
C) decision commitment.
D) risk of conflict.
E) all of the above.
Creativity potentially improves which stage in the decisionmaking process?
A) Identification of problems or opportunities
B) Developing alternative solutions
C) Implementing the selected alternative
D) All of the above
E) Only ‘a’ and ‘b’
Which of these represent the correct sequence of stages in the creativity model?
A) Preparation, incubation, insight, and verification.
B) Insight, preparation, incubation, and verification.
C) Insight, verification, incubation, and preparation.
D) Incubation, insight, preparation, and verification.
E) Incubation, verification, insight, and preparation.
The experience of suddenly becoming aware of a unique idea refers to:
A) preparation.
B) incubation.
C) insight.
D) verification.
E) termination.
An activity to improve creativity and decisionmaking is:
A) upholding the problem.
B) defining opportunities.
C) recognizing threats.
D) cross-pollination.
E) corporate restructuring.

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