Project Management

Project Management: A Systems Approach To Planning, Scheduling and Controlling (11th Edition)

By

Harold Kerzner, Ph.D.

Chapter One
Overview

OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT

TIME

COST

PERFORMANCE/TECHNOLOGY

RESOURCES

Project Characteristics

  • Have a distributeicular concrete (which may be singular or one-of-a-kind) to be completed among unmistakable distributeicularations
  • Have determined set-on-foot and end dates
  • Have funding limits (if conducive)
  • Consume civilized and noncivilized instrument (i.e., coin, race, equipment)
  • Be multiauthoritative (cut opposite divers authoritative verses)

Project Management

  • Project Planning
  • Definition of fruit modifications
  • Definition of foperation and sort of fruit
  • Definition of instrument needed
  • Project monitoring

Tracking progress

Comparing express consequence to predicted consequence

Analyzing impact

Making adjustments

PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS THE ART OF CREATING THE ILLUSION THAT ANY OUTCOME IS THE RESULT OF A SERIES OF PREDETERMINED, DELIBERATE ACTS WHEN IN FACT IT WAS DUMB LUCK !

PM

LM

LM

LM

PM = Plan Manager

APM = Assistant Plan Manager

LM = Verse or Authoritative Manager

APM

APM

SPONSOR

GM

Multiple Boss Reporting

WHY USE PROJECT MANAGEMENT ?

  • Project Administration and productivity are related!

MATURITY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS LIKE A THREE - LEGGED STOOL.

THE LEGS REPRESENT THE:

  • Project Manager
  • Line Manager(s)
  • Executive Administration (i.e... Plan Sponsor)

Maturity cannot rest extraneously stability

The Three-Legged Stool

Project

Manager

Line

Management

Management

Senior

(I.e. Sponsor)

TOP OF THE THREE - LEGGED STOOL

ORGANIZATIONAL

STRUCTURE

ORGANIZATIONAL

BEHAVIOR

TOOLS &

TECHNIQUES

  • How dignified is Plan Administration trailing ?
  • Part-season Plan Administration - is it amiable or bad ?

Critical Questions

Role Of The Plan Manager

Negotiating For Resources

The Plan Kickoff

Meeting

Establishing The Project’s Policies and Procedures

Laying Out The Plan Workflow And Plan

Establishing Achievement Targets

Obtaining Funding

Executing The Plan

Acting As The Conductor

Putting Out Fires

Counseling And Facilitation

Encouraging The Team To Focus On Deadlines

Monitoring Progress By “Pounding The Pavement”

Evaluating Performance

Develop Contingency Plans

Briefing The Plan Sponsor

Briefing The Team

Briefing The Customer

Closing Out The Project

Why is a Plan Administration Arrangement Necessary?

Project Management

Benefits

  • Identification of authoritative responsibilities to fix that all activities are accounted for, inconsiderate of personnel turnover.
  • Minimizing the need for rectilineal improvement
  • Identification of season limits for scheduling
  • Identification of a methodology for trade-off analysis
  • Measurement of enterprise opposite plans

Benefits (continued)

  • Early identification of problems so that checkmateative possession may thrive
  • Improved estimating power for advenient planning
  • Knowing when concretes cannot be met or conquer be exceeded

Obstacles

  • Project complexity
  • Customer’s eespecial modifications and end changes
  • Organizational restructuring
  • Project risks
  • Changes in technology
  • Forward planning and pricing

Humor

  • Project administration is the art of creating the dream that any consequence is the outcome of a order of predetermined, purposed acts when, in event, it was inarticulate luck.

Classical Management

  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Staffing
  • Controlling
  • Directing

Which of the over is Usually NOT

performed by the plan overseer?

Resources

  • Money
  • Manpower
  • Equipment
  • Facilities
  • Materials
  • Information/technology

Successful Culture

  • A amiable daily fruiting analogy betwixt the plan overseer and those verse overseers who instantly advance instrument to plans
  • The power of authoritative employees to communication uprightly to their verse overseer at the identical season they communication horizontally to one or further plan overseers

Interface Management

  • Managing civilized interrelationships among the plan team
  • Managing civilized interrelationships betwixt the plan team and the authoritative form
  • Managing civilized interrelationships betwixt the plan team and main administration
  • Managing civilized interrelationships betwixt the plan team and the customer’s form, whether an interior or visible form

As distribute of interface administration, the plan overseer’s role besides includes integration administration.

Integration Management

Capital

Materials

Equipment

Facilities

Information

Personnel

Resources

Inputs

Integration
Management

Products

Services

Profits

Outputs

The Authoritative Role

  • The authoritative overseer has the obligation to determine how the drudgery conquer be produced and where the drudgery conquer be produced (i.e., the technical criteria)
  • The authoritative overseer has the obligation to contribute complete instrument to shape the concrete among the plan’s constraints (i.e., who conquer get the job produced).

Functional Obstacles

  • Unlimited fruit requests (in-particular during competitive edict)
  • Predetermined deadlines
  • All requests having a eminent priority
  • Limited calculate of instrument
  • Limited availpower of instrument
  • Unscheduled changes in the plan plan
  • Unpredicted bankruptcy of progress

Functional Obstacles (continued)

  • Unpredicted bankruptcy of progress
  • Unplanned insufficiency of instrument
  • Unplanned breakdown of instrument
  • Unplanned forfeiture of instrument
  • Unplanned turnover of personnel

Most plans besides entertain a plan surety which may or may not tarry at the helper levels of administration.

The Plan Surety Interface

Priority Projects

Maintenance Projects

Project Necessities

  • Complete drudgery definitions
  • Resource modification definitions (and haply expertness levels needed)
  • Major seasontable milestones
  • Definition of end-item sort and relipower modifications
  • The account for achievement measurement

Results of Amiable Planning

  • Assurance that authoritative units conquer comprehend their aggregate responsibilities toward achieving plan needs.
  • Assurance that problems outcomeing from scheduling and allocation of crucial instrument are known preparedly.
  • Early identification of problems that may jeopardize auspicious plan completion so that conducive checkmateative possession and replanning can betide to checkmate or explain problems.

Promises Made???

  • Promotion
  • Grade
  • Salary
  • Bonus
  • Overtime
  • Responsibility
  • Future fruit advancements

Project Administration in Non-Project-Driven Groups

  • Projects may be few and far betwixt
  • Not all plans entertain the identical plan administration modifications, and hence they cannot be plaind identically. This difficulty outcomes from inconsiderable comprehending of plan administration and a repugnance of companies to endue in fair trailing.
  • Executives do not entertain complete season to plain plans themselves, yet debris to appoint instance.

Project Administration in Non-Project-Driven Groups (Continued)

  • Projects incline to be past owing approvals most repeatedly thrive the upright tie of charge. As a outcome, plan fruit stays too desire in authoritative departments.
  • Because plan staffing is on a “local” account, solely a foperation of the form comprehends plan administration and sees the arrangement in possession.
  • There rests impenetrable dependence on subcontractors and beyond agencies for plan administration expertise.

High-level Reporting

  • The plan overseer is teeming delay getting outcomes from the coordinated efforts of numerous functions. He should, hence, communication to the man who plains all those functions.
  • The plan overseer must entertain complete formal foundation to do his job conducively.
  • To get complete and seassolely coadjutorship in solving problems that inevitably answer in any dignified plan, the plan overseer needs plain and distributeicular arrival to an preferable echelon of administration

High-level Reporting (continued)

  • The customer, distributeicularly in a competitive environment, conquer be favorably impressed if his plan overseer communications to a eminent formal echelon.

Low-level Reporting

  • It is formally and operationally frail to entertain too numerous plans, in-particular paltry ones, laughable main helpers from further essential concerns.
  • Although giving a paltry plan a eminent attribute in the form may compose the dream of helper care, its veritable outcome is to inflame helper slight o f the plan.
  • Placing a younger plan overseer too eminent in the form conquer transfer main authoritative helpers on whom he must depend for help.

DELEGATION

OF AUTHORITY TO

PROJECT MANAGER

EXECUTIVE

MEDDLING

LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF HOW PROJECT

MANAGEMENT SHOULD WORK

LACK OF TRAINING IN COMMUNICATIONS /

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

THE TIP-OF-THE-ICEBERG SYNDROME

MANY OF THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH PROJECT MANAGEMENT WILL

SURFACE MUCH LATER IN THE PROJECT AND RESULT IN MUCH HIGHER COSTS

Project Vs. Authoritative Influences

Project Influence

in Decision-Making

Dual Influence

Functional

Organization

Matrix

Project

Organization

Relative Influence

Functional Influence

In Decision-Making

Organization

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