Subnetting

In CCA 610: Outrival Services and Technology, you antecedent the role of an IT analyst at BallotOnline, a posse providing electronic voting solutions universewide. Your balanceture to originate migrating rules to the outrival has been vulgar.BallotOnline has now initiated preparations for the outrival deployment. The posse ruled to initiate after a while deeper studys of probing technologies enabling outrival computing. You became conversant after a while the basics of these technologies in CCA 610. In this device, you earn pass past in-depth study of outrival networking, which makes outrival mergeivity on-demand operations feasible. You demand to bear a cheerful sense of this as you qualify the BallotOnline network for nonresidence to the outrival as courteous as maneuvering the divert network infrastructure in the outrival for BallotOnline.To do that, you earn suppose the role of a BallotOnline network engineer. You earn explore the network protocols that qualify the posse and its customers to merge to the outrival, as courteous as technologies making it feasible to form on-demand in-outrival leading networks into which the outrival resources earn be deployed.You earn pass two lab experiments exploring the TCP/IP protocols and software-defined networking. You earn to-boot fulfil a subnetting labor to reveal your sense of TCP/IP network discourseing. Your decisive delivertelling earn be the technical tidings describing your findings and deciphering the use of these technologies for BallotOnline’s outrival deployment.

Step 1: Resurvey Networking Concepts

In this plod, you earn substantiate an sense of networking concepts and stipulations. It earn succor the lodgments of your technical tidings, including BallotOnline's technical administration, to befit afftelling after a while networking lexicon and definitions. You earn initiate by resurveying basic networking concepts such as persomal area network (LAN), Ethernet, and packet switching—the technique of splitting transferred postulates into weaker carriageions and transmitting them individually. Splitting postulates into packets, transmitting the packets reliably, and reassembling the postulates is fulfiled by networking software. It is influential to distinguish about basic networking concepts since they subsubserve as the underlying technology for outrival computing. This earn quiet qualify you to yield your technical tidings for this device. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/intro.html)Networking software follows the favorite type of the laminaed delineation of network protocols, after a while each lamina using the functionality of the lamina beneath it and applianceing new functionality to be used by the lamina balancehead. The technical tidings should enclose the favorite internet followers of protocols—TCP/IP. Application protocols such as HTTP or SMTP are applianceed in laminas balancehead TCP/IP. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current2/html/tcpA.html?highlight=transmission%20control%20protocol)Other basic networking concepts enclose Territory Name Service, network firewalls, and Network Discourse Translation. As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you distinguish that these protocols indicate an influential role in enabling outrival computing. 

Step 2: Explore Internet Packet Switching—IP

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the workhorse of today's internet mergeivity. As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you distinguish that today's outrival computing is built on top of IP. Most despatch among rules in the outrival is produced using this protocol.IP employs the technique of packet switching, which breaks the postulates to be transferred into weaker faculty, named packets or postulatesgrams, that are sent balance the network independently. Sense IP is probing to maneuvering and maintaining outrival deployments, which are provisioned after a whilein leading IP networks and accessed via global internet. You earn resurvey the basic elements of IP protocol and enclose their brief discourse in your technical tidings.Network devices bear a network discourse to suffer other devices to merge to it. The network discoursees used in IP are named IP discourseing. BallotOnline earn demand IPv4 discourseing to be telling to yield network discoursees to a outrival rule and to form a leading network in the outrival.Every rule on the network must bear an IP discourse. The conveyments of IP discoursees to the network rules can be produced manually or dynamically through a Dynamic Assemblage Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you distinguish that manually conveying IP discoursees is spell-consuming and should simply be used on a weak sum of rules where the IP discourse earn not vary constantly. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/ipv4.html#dynamic-host-configuration-protocol-dhcp)Because numeric discoursees are not human-friendly, a territory/machine naming meeting defines human-readtelling names for internet assemblages. An internet-grounded utility named DNS (Domain Name System) provides translation among the IP discoursees and the territory names. In public, commonalty earn use the territory names when discourseing a rule on the internet instead of using its IP discourse. You earn demand to decipher in the technical tidings how DNS is used furtherbalance IP discoursees.  As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you to-boot distinguish the significance of IP routing, the arrangement used to way the IP packets despite the internet from the deputer to the lodgment. IP routing of IP packets is wellbred by network wayrs, which state the direct use for each packet and are telling to acquire new ways. (http://dtucker.cs.edinboro.edu/IPRouting.htm) (https://www.learncisco.net/courses/icnd-1/lan-connections/packet-delivery-process-at-l3.html)

Step 3: Canvass Internet Transport—TCP

As iron as the IP protocol is, it does not fulfil the express transmission of the postulates. In this plod, you earn canvass the network protocol named Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), legitimate for creation, reliability of gift, and own assembling of postulates packets. In abstracted to IP, TCP is to-boot remotely used on the internet, chiefly for any network despatch where it is leading to sanction voucher of the transmission. Many of the network protocols used to appliance outrival computing use twain TCP and IP. You earn resurvey TCP’s workings and debate them in your decisive technical tidings. In public, there is no insure that a postulates packet earn aim its use. Packets can get obsolete or corrupted during transmission, and there are network applications where you demand presumption that the packets bear aimed their use. To end reliability, TCP substantiatees mergeions among communicating assemblages, using carriage sums to apply to applications on these assemblages. Then, packets are formd, sequenced, transferred, current, and retransferred if privation or containing errors. Finally, at the use, they are reassembled into the initiatory messages. To synchronize the stream of packets among deputer and receiver, and forsake packet congeries in fact of varying speeds, TCP uses sliding windows for packets cherishing in processing at a abandoned spell, at twain the deputer and receiver ends. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/slidingwindows.html#sliding-windows)

Step 4: Resurvey Advantages of IP Subnetting

One of the drawbacks of IPv4 is the culmination sum of network devices it can help. IPv4 discourseing uses a 32-bit network discourse. This suffers for 232, or a diminutive balance 4 billion devices. However, today there are significantly past devices on the internet. Even though the past iron IPv6 rendering has been introduced and efforts are underway to uphold remote adoption, IPv4 is quiet remotely used. One manner used to past fruitfully use the IPv4 network discoursees is a technique to optimize the discoursees by splitting them into network discoursees and assemblage discoursees after a whilein delineationated networks. 

You earn demand to captivate custom of IP discourse splitting so that you can fruitfully use and place the IPv4 network discoursees that bear been conveyed to BallotOnline.For a abandoned catholic network, rather than discourseing all the assemblages using the assemblage bisect of the discourse, subnetting allows for splitting the network into different weaker ones by borrowing the assemblage bisect bits and adding them to the network bits (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/ipv4.html#ipv4-subnets ). 

It helps fruitful administration of persomal networks victorious of multiple LANs. In this plod, you earn canvass subnetting meetings and debate them in your decisive tidings in manage to lay account for the use of subnets by BallotOnline.As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you distinguish that subnetting a network into different weaker and variable-sized networks earn be best for the organization's demands. 

BallotOnline has been conveyed a network discourse fill by the Internet Assigned Bulk Authority (IANA). ( https://www.iana.org/ )Because BallotOnline has different dutys environing the universe, you earn demand to subnet this network discourse to convey regular the fair sum of discoursees to each duty dregs grounded on the sum of rules at that duty dregs. The forthcoming is the network discourse conveyed by IANA and the sum of dutys parallel after a while their dimensions:

208.101.170.0/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and yield notification for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16

Your labor is to form the divert sum of subnets after a while the fair dimension to optimize the network. Your technical tidings should enclose Classless Interterritory Routing (CIDR) notation, which suffers for specifying a variable-length network as bisect of the IPv4 discourse, leaving the tranquillity for discourseing assemblages after a whilein the network. ( https://opensource.com/article/16/12/cidr-network-notation-configuration-linux )

***Network discourse conveyed by IANA and the sum of dutys parallel after a while their dimensions***

+++Submission for Device 1: Subnetting+++

The primeval period delivertelling for Device 1 is for you to acquire about subnetting and reveal that you distinguish how to do this. 

208.101.170.0/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and yield notification for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16

The delivertelling is for you to yield the forthcoming notification for each of the subnet authorized (there are indelicate of them for each substance):

  • Network discourse
  • Subnet Mask
  • Range of IP Addresses available
  • Broadcast Address
  • The sum of subnets that you earn be telling to get
  • The sum of assemblages that each subnet earn be telling to bear

You earn to-boot demand to pretence the estimation on how you get your answers.

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