Psychosis and schizophrenia greatly impact the brain’s normal processes, which interfere with the ability to think clearly. When symptoms of these disorders are uncontrolled, patients may struggle to function in daily life. However, patients often thrive when properly diagnosed and treated under the close supervision of a psychiatric mental health practitioner. For this Assignment, as you examine the patient case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with psychosis and schizophrenia.
Examine Case Study: Pakistani Woman With Delusional Thought Processes. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this patient. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
At each decision point, you should evaluate all options before selecting your decision and moving throughout the exercise. Before you make your decision, make sure that you have researched each option and that you evaluate the decision that you will select. Be sure to research each option using the primary literature.
Introduction to the case (1 page)
Decision #1 (1 page)
Decision #2 (1 page)
Decision #3 (1 page)
Conclusion (1 page)
Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of five academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement. You should be utilizing the primary and secondary literature.
Reminder : The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Freudenreich, O., Goff, D. C., & Henderson, D. C. (2016). Antipsychotic drugs. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics (pp. 72–85). Elsevier.
American Psychiatric Association. (2019). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Practice/Clinical%20Practice%20Guidelines/APA-Draft-Schizophrenia-Treatment-Guideline.pdf
Funk, M. C., Beach, S. R., Bostwick, J. R., Celano, C. M., Hasnain, M., Pandurangi, A., Khandai, A., Taylor, A., Levenson, J. L., Riba, M., & Kovacs, R. J. (2018). Resource document on QTc prolongation and psychotropic medications. American Psychiatric Association. https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Directories/Library-and-Archive/resource_documents/Resource-Document-2018-QTc-Prolongation-and-Psychotropic-Med.pdf
McClellan, J. & Stock. S. (2013). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(9), 976–990. https://www.jaacap.org/article/S0890-8567(09)62600-9/pdf
The client is a 34-year-old Pakistani female who moved to the United States in her late teens/early 20s. She is currently in an “arranged” marriage (her husband was selected for her when she was 9 years old). She presents following a 21-day hospitalization for what was diagnosed as “brief psychotic disorder.” She was given this diagnosis as her symptoms have persisted for less than 1 month.
Prior to admission, she was reporting visions of Allah, and over the course of a week, she believed that she was the prophet Mohammad. She believed that she would deliver the world from sin. Her husband became concerned about her behavior to the point that he was afraid of leaving their 4 children with her. One evening, she was “out of control,” which resulted in his calling the police and her subsequent admission to an inpatient psych unit.
During today’s assessment, she appears quite calm and insists that the entire incident was “blown out of proportion.” She denies that she believed herself to be the prophet Mohammad and states that her husband was just out to get her because he never loved her and wanted an “American wife” instead of her. She says she knows this because the television is telling her so.
She currently weighs 140 lbs., and she is 5’ 5.
Client reports that her mood is “good.” She denies auditory/visual hallucinations but believes that the television talks to her. She believes that Allah sends her messages through the TV. At times throughout the clinical interview, she becomes hostile towards you but then calms down.
A review of her hospital records shows that she received a medical workup from physician, who reported her to be in overall good health. Lab studies were all within normal limits.
Client admits that she stopped taking her Risperdal about a week after she got out of the hospital because she thinks her husband is going to poison her so that he can marry an American woman.
MENTAL STATUS EXAM
The client is alert and oriented to person, place, time, and event. She is dressed appropriately for the weather and time of year. She demonstrates no noteworthy mannerisms, gestures, or tics. Her speech is slow and, at times, interrupted by periods of silence. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect is constricted. Although the client denies visual or auditory hallucinations, she appears to be “listening” to something. Delusional and paranoid thought processes as described above. Insight and judgment are impaired. She is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation.
You administer the PANSS which reveals the following scores:
-40 for the positive symptoms scale
-20 for the negative symptom scale
-60 for general psychopathology scale
Diagnosis: Schizophrenia, paranoid type
PANSS Scale. Available at: http://egret.psychol.cam.ac.uk/medicine/scales/PANSS
§ Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13(2), 261–276. doi:10.1093/schbul/13.2.261
§ Clozapine REMS Program. (n.d.). Clozapine REMS: A guide for healthcare providers. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from https://www.clozapinerems.com/CpmgClozapineUI/rems/pdf/resources/Clozapine_REMS_A_Guide_for_Healthcare_Providers.pdf
§ Paz, Z., Nalls, M., and Ziv, E. (2011). The genetics of benign neutropenia. Israel Medical Association Journal, 13(10), 625–629. Retrieved from http://www.ima.org.il/FilesUpload/IMAJ/0/40/20149.pdf
Decision Point One
Start Zyprexa (olanzapine) 10 mg orally at BEDTIME
RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE
Decision Point Two
RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO
Decision Point Three
Guidance to Student
Weight gain is a significant problem with Zyprexa. Next to Clozaril (clozapine), Zyprexa causes the most weight gain of all the atypical antipsychotics. This is a side effect that a significant number of clients will experience. There also appears to be an increased association of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus in clients treated with Zyprexa. Although this can be disease related in this population, Zyprexa is above what would be considered coincidental.
Risperdal is a good option, although it is dosed twice daily and compliance in this population can be problematic. There is evidence that shows giving Risperdal all at once can be efficacious and therefore could be an option down the road should compliance become an issue. Weight gain is also possible with Risperdal, but it is not as great as that seen with Zyprexa. If compliance does become an issue with this client, Risperdal has a long-acting injectable formulation, Risperdal Consta, that could be used. Remember, Risperdal Consta has to be given every 2 weeks at the provider’s office, and therapeutic blood levels take time to achieve (on average 3–6 weeks or 2–3 injections). Oral overlapping therapy is required to bridge this period of time. Another option in someone who responds to Risperdal would be Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate), which is the first metabolite of Risperdal and has greater activity at the D2 receptor than Risperdal. An advantage of Invega Sustenna over Risperdal Consta is that therapeutic blood levels are attained within the first 4–7 days, and overlapping oral therapy is usually not necessary. A disadvantage is that during the initiating phase of medication, the first two doses need to be given within 4–7 days of one another. This is followed by monthly injections. There is another product on the market called Invega Trinza, which is given once every 3 months. This product is for clients who have been stabilized on Invega Sustenna for at least 4 months where the last two doses were the same strength (two months of 156 mg injections).
Increasing Zyprexa to 15 mg at bedtime will only worsen the weight gain side effect. While additional benefits from increasing the dose may be possible from an efficacy standpoint, side effects always need to be taken into consideration. “First, do no harm.” Qsymia is a weight loss medication that is a combination of phentermine and topiramate. It is only indicated to treat obesity. This client’s BMI (28.9 kg/M2) does not fit the definition of obesity (BMI >30 Kg/M2- Following from CDC website: Class 1: BMI of 30 to < 35, Class 2: BMI of 35 to < 40, Class 3: BMI of 40 or higher. Class 3 obesity is sometimes categorized as “extreme” or “severe” obesity). There are two things wrong with this therapy option. First, there are only a few occasions where add-on therapy to treat a side effect is acceptable, and weight gain is not one of those scenarios. Secondly, phentermine has a lot of cardiovascular toxicities (such as elevated BP, HR, and increased workload on the heart).
PLEASE USE 6 REFERENCES FROM SCHOOL RESOURCES.
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