What ethical stance should managers adopt when in a foreign country

C06 Online Exam 1_02 SCORE 100 PERCENT

Question 1 

What ethical stance should managers adopt when in a foreign country whose laws and culture are different than what they are used to?

  A.  Judge each case as it comes along. 

  B.  Stick to the higher standards that are typical in their home country. 

  C.  Always follow local practices and laws. 

  D.  Follow their own personal code of ethics.

Question 2 

What are the two stages within the first level (Preconventional level. of Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Moral Development?

A.  punishment and obedience orientation; instrumental and relative orientation 

B.  interpersonal concordance orientation; law and order orientation 

C.  social contract orientation; universal moral principles orientation 

D.  microsocial norm orientation; interpersonal concordance orientation

Question 3 

Why did Dr. P. Roy Vagelos, Merck’s head of research and development, decide to fund Ivermectin development to cure river blindness?

A.  because of its large profit potential 

B.  because he decided it was the ethical choice 

C.  because it was both ethical and profitable 

D.  because governments would be interested in buying the drug

Question 4 

Moral standards can be distinguished from non-moral standards using what characteristics?

  A.  They deal with matters that can seriously injure or benefit humans. 

  B.  They are not established or changed by authoritative bodies. 

  C.  They are based on impartial considerations. 

  D.  None of the above 

  E.  All the above

Question 5 

What is an example of a microsocial norm?

A.  prohibition of murder 

B.  prohibition of alcohol 

C.  prohibition of torture 

D.  prohibition of stealing

Question 6 

Which of the following ethical issues did NOT arise as a result of the Industrial Revolution?

A.  worker exploitation in factories 

B.  environmental damage 

C.  manipulation of the new financial markets 

D.  customer privacy issues

Question 7 

What are the three elements of moral responsibility?

A.  causality, forethought, knowledge 

B.  causality, knowledge, malice 

C.  causality, knowledge, freedom 

D.  freedom, knowledge, malice

Question 8 

Which of the following is one definition of the term ethics?

A.  the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group 

B.  the process of adhering to all laws and regulations 

C.  an alternate term for morality 

D.  a term describing why people are good or evil

Question 9 

When are our values formed?

A.  during childhood, and they do not change after that 

B.  during adolescence 

C.  once we are adults 

D.  all throughout our lives as we mature

Question 10 

How do we stimulate moral development in ourselves?

A.  experience difficult ethical decisions ourselves 

B.  engage in interaction and discussion of moral issues with people around us 

C.  read about how others have dealt with ethical decisions 

D.  avoid ethically dubious situations

Question 11 

The ISCT framework describes two kinds of moral standards: hypernorms and microsocial norms. What does ISCT stand for?

  A.  Implicit Social Cognitive Transition 

  B.  Integrative Social Contracts Theory 

  C.  International Social Consensus Theory 

  D.  Integral Society Cognition Theory 

Question 12 

Which of the following are necessary for moral reasoning?  

A.  cognition

B.  logic

C.  emotions

D.  all of the above

Question 13 

What is “stakeholder theory”?  

  A.  Corporate managers are obligated only to the shareholders, and no one else, because they own the corporation. 

  B.  Corporate managers are obligated only to the customers, and no one else, because they are the lifeblood of the corporation. 

  C.  Corporate managers should consider everyone, including outside interests, when making a decision. 

  D.  Corporate managers should consider all groups or individuals who can affect the achievement of an organization’s objectives. 

Question 14 

What happens during the Conventional Stages of Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Moral Development?

  A.  Children can see moral rights and wrongs. 

  B.  Children can apply the labels good, bad, right, and wrong. 

  C.  Children satisfy their own needs through right actions. 

  D.  The person tries to see right and wrong impartially.

Question 15 

Why do many Ivory Coast cocoa farmers use young boys as slave labor?

  A.  It is the cheapest farming method, and the farmers are only interested in their huge profits. 

  B.  There are no other people available to work the land in such remote areas due to civil war. 

  C.  The farmers have no control over their selling prices due to middlemen, so some resort to child labor to cut costs. 

  D.  The chocolate companies force them to use child labor.

Question 16 

. What stance does your textbook take on globalization?

  A.  Globalization is beneficial. 

  B.  Globalization is a “mixed bag.” 

  C.  Globalization is harmful. 

  D.  None of the above

Question 17 

What does the “Loyal Agent Argument” state?

  A.  An employer would want to be served in whatever ways will advance his or her self-interests. 

  B.  A customer expects to be served in whatever ways will ensure their loyalty to the company or brand. 

  C.  An employee has a duty only to themselves as a loyal agent, and nobody else. 

  D.  Companies will not waste time serving ethical needs because acting ethically does not advance their self-interests.

Question 18 

According to Gilligan’s Theory of Female Moral Development, how do males typically tend to deal with moral issues?

A.  in an emotionally biased manner 

B.  in a manner based on family and community norms 

C.  in terms of specific, personal moral principles 

D.  in terms of impersonal, abstract moral principles

Question 19 

Carol Gilligan criticizes Kohlberg’s theory on the basis of what?

  A.  Not all societies implicitly teach right and wrong. 

  B.  His theory did not include people from other cultures. 

  C.  His theory did not include different age groups. 

  D.  His theory was based mostly on male subjects.

Question 20 

In the Integrative Social Contracts Theory, what is the term for moral standards that should be applied to people in all societies?

A.  social norms 

B.  microsocial norms 

C.  hypernorms

D.  macrosocial norms

C06 Online Exam 2_03 SCORE 100 PERCENT

Question 1 of 20

Which of the following is an ethical rule governing contracts?

    A. The contract must be fair.

    B. The contract must be enforceable.

    C. The contract must be specific.

    D. The contract must not be immoral.

Question 2 of 20

Which of the following is NOT one of the “universal human rights” espoused by the United Nations?

    A. the right to own property

    B. the right to welfare

    C. the right to reasonable working hours

    D. the right to periodic holidays with pay

Question 3 of 20

What did critics allege was wrong with Disney’s principles when it came to human rights standards for China?

    A. Their code of ethics conflicted with cultural values in China.

    B. Their code of ethics did not include occupational safety.

    C. Their code of ethics had not been updated since the foundation of the company.

    D. Their code of ethics was too narrow and not enforced.

Question 4 of 20

What is the definition of egalitarianism?

    A. Every person should be given exactly equal shares of a society’s or a group’s benefits and burdens.

    B. In any situation the right course of action is the one that will provide people with the greatest amount of benefits while minimizing harms.

    C. Benefits should be distributed according to the value of the contribution the individual makes to a society, a task, a group, or an exchange.

    D. Work burdens should be distributed according to people’s abilities, and benefits should be distributed according to people’s needs.

Question 5 of 20

What is the categorical imperative?

    A. the requirement that people be divided into “separate but equal” categories

    B. the duty that the government has to not separate people into groups

    C. the requirement that everyone should be treated equally

    D. none of the above

Question 6 of 20

What type of justice involves remuneration for wrongs or injuries?

    A. retributive justice

    B. distributive justice

    C. reparative justice

    D. compensatory justice

Question 7 of 20

Rawls’ Principle of equal liberty includes __________.

    A. the right to vote

    B. freedom of speech

    C. freedom of arbitrary arrest

    D. all of the above

    E. none of the above

Question 8 of 20

What is one of the limitations of Kant’s theory?

    A. It conflicts with all human rights.

    B. It is difficult to balance rights against other conflicting rights.

    C. It can help individuals make decisions, but not companies.

    D. It does not have any limitations.

Question 9 of 20

Which of the following is not true of utilitarianism?

    A. It advocates maximizing utility.

    B. It provides an easy way to measure utility.

    C. It appears intuitive to many people.

    D. It has influenced economics.

Question 10 of 20

What does rule utilitarianism look at?

    A. the amount of utility produced by a particular action

    B. the moral rules of a particular action

    C. the people affected by a particular action

    D. the legality and legal rules of a particular action

Question 11 of 20

What is a criticism of utilitarianism?

    A. Not all values can be measured.

    B. It harms the weak.

    C. It does not account for the environment.

    D. It does not provide a system to determine who should receive benefits.

Question 12 of 20

What does the libertarian philosophy espouse?  

    A. That human beings have the right to an orderly but liberal society.

    B. That human beings intrinsically crave liberty and cannot abide by rules.

    C. That freedom from human constraint is necessarily good.

    D. That all human constraints are evil.

Question 13 of 20

What are intrinsic goods?

    A. things that are considered good because they lead to other good things

    B. things that we believe we desire, because of advertising and popular opinion

    C. things that are desired for their own sake, such as health and life

    D. things which we do not value or desire, but others do

Question 14 of 20

What is a major problem with the utilitarian reliance on measurement?

    A. Comparative measures of the values things have for different people cannot be made; we cannot get into each other’s skin to measure the pleasure or pain caused.

    B. All benefits and costs are possible to measure.

    C. People may not want to consider the potential costs of an action.

    D. All of the above

Question 15 of 20

What was the ethical dilemma that Traidos Bank was presented with when dealing with Swiss pharmaceutical company, Roche?

    A. Roche was engaging in legally dubious accounting practices.

    B. Roche dealt with countries that Traidos Bank found to be unethical.

    C. Roche used questionably obtained organs for transplant drug testing.

    D. Roche did not deal fairly with Traidos Bank.

Question 16 of 20

5.0 Points

Why did the Ford managers decide not to fix the gas tank on the Pinto?

    A. because they believed it was best for society as a whole

    B. because they did not have enough time or budget

    C. to save money on the cost of fixing the tanks

    D. because they were acting in self-interest

Question 17 of 20

What type of justice involves the allocation of benefits and burdens?

    A. retributive justice

    B. distributive justice

    C. reparative justice

    D. compensatory justice

Question 18 of 20

Which of the following is NOT true regarding moral rights?

    A. They are closely related to duties.

    B. They provide a basis for justifying one’s actions.

    C. They generally override utilitarian standards.

    D. They are immune from all utilitarian considerations.

Question 19 of 20

Which of the following is not a moral right?

    A. negative rights

    B. contractual rights

    C. positive rights

    D. legal rights

Question 20 of 20

Immanuel Kant’s principle, called the categorical imperative, requires that everyone be treated as __________.

    A. a free and equal person

    B. a dependent employee

    C. an indentured person

    D. a non-resident employee

C06 Online Exam 3_05 SCORE 100 PERCENT

Question 1 of 20

What is the basic problem underlying the views of the social Darwinist?

    A. Survival of the fittest is assumed to be survival of the best.

    B. It does not take into account those less fortunate.

    C. It conflicts with notions of government.

    D. It is unsustainable.

Question 2 of 20

Smith’s utilitarian argument is most commonly criticized for making which of the following so-called “unrealistic” arguments?  

    A. Smith assumes that no one seller can control the price of a good.

    B. Smith assumes that the manufacturer will pay for all the resources used to produce a product.

    C. Smith assumes that humans are motivated only by a natural, self-interested desire for profit.

    D. All the above

Question 3 of 20

What did Marx object to in regards to private property?  

    A. private ownership of land

    B. private ownership of factories and companies

    C. private ownership of houses, clothes, etc.

    D. private ownership of anything

Question 4 of 20

Social Darwinists had a different take on the utilitarian justification for free markets. What did they argue?

    A. They argued that only by aiding weaker businesses can they grow strong.

    B. They argued that economic competition would not produce human progress.

    C. They argued that economic competition was inherently flawed.

    D. They argued that the best businesses are those that can survive fierce economic competition.

Question 5 of 20

What is the term for a grant that indicates ownership of a particular expression or idea?

    A. intellectual property

    B. trademark

    C. copyright

    D. infringement

Question 6 of 20

What is the definition of “absolute advantage?”

    A. Production costs of making a commodity are lower for one country than another.

    B. A company has a trade secret that gives it an edge in the markets.

    C. A country produces many different goods, rather than specializing.

    D. Opportunity costs of making a commodity are lower for one country than another.

Question 7 of 20

Ricardo looks to which rule setter to normalize trade?

    A. World Trade Organization

    B. World Bank

    C. International Monetary Fund

    D. None of the above

Question 8 of 20

What is the definition of “comparative advantage”?  

    A. Production costs of making a commodity are lower for one country than another.

    B. A company has a trade secret that gives it an edge in the markets.

    C. A country produces many different goods, rather than specializing.

    D. Opportunity costs of making a commodity are lower for one country than another.

Question 9 of 20

So-called primitive societies used economic systems based on __________.

    A. small business organization

    B. tradition-based societies

    C. barter systems

    D. none of the above

Question 10 of 20

What is the term for nonphysical property such as knowledge or information?

    A. intellectual property

    B. virtual property

    C. information property

    D. Internet property

Question 11 of 20

China and Singapore are examples of what type of economies?

    A. ones that favor free markets and globalization

    B. ones that favor individual property rights

    C. ones that favor government intervention

    D. ones that favor competition

Question 12 of 20

Under TRIPS, when do patents for new products expire?

    A. after five years

    B. after the company owning the patent reaches 25 years in business

    C. after 20 years

    D. after 50 years

Question 13 of 20

What is the definition of the economic system based primarily on government authorities making decisions?  

    A. command economy

    B. market economy

    C. mixed economy

    D. capitalist economy

Question 14 of 20

Which country’s laws regarding property and ownership rights have been influenced by John Locke’s views?

    A. United States

    B. Japan

    C. Thailand

    D. Mexico

Question 15 of 20

According to Smith, when private individuals are left free to seek their own interests in free markets, they will inevitably be led to further the public welfare by __________.

    A. giving donations

    B. spending more freely

    C. the “invisible hand”

    D. a “guiding light”

Question 16 of 20

What effects of capitalism did Karl Marx observe and detail?

    A. the rise of large corporations

    B. pollution of the environment

    C. unethical behavior of business owners

    D. worker exploitation and inequality

Question 17 of 20

Karl Marx offers the most critical view of modern private property and free market institutions. Marx claims that free-market capitalism necessarily produces __________.

    A. extremes of inefficiency

    B. extremes of efficiency

    C. extremes of equality

    D. extremes of inequality

Question 18 of 20

According to Locke, the power of government should be __________.

    A. expanded to meet the needs of all citizens

    B. expanded to meet the needs of corporations

    C. limited, extending only far enough to protect basic rights of all citizens

    D. limited, extending only far enough to protect the basic rights of corporations

Question 19 of 20

What is the most important concept in international trade theory?

    A. free trade

    B. absolute advantage

    C. comparative advantage

    D. means of production

Question 20 of 20

Which of the following is true of decisions made in a system primarily based on markets?

    A. Private companies make the main decisions about what they will produce and who will get it.

    B. Land and factories are owned and managed by private individuals.

    C. People are motivated to work primarily by the desire to get paid for voluntarily supplying the things others are willing to pay for.

    D. All of the above

C06 Online Exam 5_08 SCORE 100 PERCENT

Question 1

The common definition of price fixing is __________.

A.  when companies agree to set prices artificially high 

B.  when companies agree to limit production 

C.  when a company sells a buyer certain goods only on condition that the buyer also purchases other goods from the firm 

D.  when companies agree to limit production

Question 2

Which government law is the most important legislation that protects markets from price fixing?

  A.  Interstate Commerce Act 

  B.  Clayton Act 

  C.  Sherman Antitrust Act 

  D.  Tobacco Trust Act

Question 3

In a perfectly free competitive market, __________.

A.  no buyer or seller has the power to significantly affect the price of a good 

B.  the most influential buyers or sellers have the power to affect the price of a good 

C.  the majority of buyers or sellers have the power to affect the price of a good 

D.  only buyers have the power to significantly affect the price of a good

Question 4

What is the most obvious failure of monopoly markets?

A.  the damage to the environment 

B.  the high prices they allow the monopoly companies to charge 

C.  the inequalities between employees and executives 

D.  monopoly markets have no real failures

Question 5

An oil company is expanding, but no new oil fields are available. They therefore must resort to the expensive and less-efficient practice of extracting petroleum from oil sands. This is known as __________.  

A.  the principle of increasing marginal cost 

B.  the principle of gross marginal utility 

C.  the principle of diminishing marginal utility 

D.  the principle of increasing marginal utility

Question 6

Which of the following is the term for a situation in which manufacturers sell to firms only if the firms charge a certain price for the goods?  

A.  retail price maintenance agreements 

B.  bid rigging 

C.  exclusive dealing arrangements 

D.  price discrimination

Question 7

Monopolistic markets and their high prices and profits violate capitalist justice. Why?

  A.  Monopolies are much like communism. 

  B.  Buyers will not pay high prices, so the monopoly will fail. 

  C.  Charging high prices is an unsustainable business model. 

  D.  The seller charges more than the goods are worth; therefore, the prices are unjust.

Question 8

In a perfectly free economy, all buyers and sellers are what?

A.  utility users 

B.  utility creators 

C.  utility maximizers 

D.  utilitydiminishers

Question 9

What is necessary for free competitive markets?

A.  an enforceable private property system 

B.  government regulations 

C.  fair prices 

D.  a physical place to do business

Question 10

Which of the following is the term for a situation in which firms agree to sell only to customers in specific territories or to specific demographics?

A.  market allocation 

B.  bid rigging 

C.  exclusive dealing arrangements 

D.  tying arrangements

Question 11

Which of the following is the term for a situation in which firms limit their output?

A.  market allocation 

B.  bid rigging 

C.  exclusive dealing arrangements 

D.  manipulation of supply

Question 12

In a perfectly competitive market, what is the equilibrium point?

A.  the point at which the sellers can produce the largest quantity, and the highest price at which the sellers can make a profit 

B.  the point at which the sellers can produce the lowest quantity for the highest price at which buyers are willing to pay 

C.  the point at which the quantity buyers want to buy equals that which sellers want to sell 

  D.  the point at which the quantity buyers want to buy equals that which sellers want to sell, and the highest price at which buyers are willing to pay equals the lowest price sellers are willing to sell at

Question 13

Which of the following are characteristics of a perfectly free economy?

  A.  There are numerous buyers and sellers, none of whom has a substantial share of the market. 

  B.  All buyers and sellers can freely and immediately enter or leave the market. 

  C.  Every buyer and seller has full and perfect knowledge of what every other buyer and seller is doing, including knowledge of the prices, quantities, and quality of all goods being bought and sold. 

  D.  All the above

Question 14

Which of the following is NOT a feature of a perfectly competitive free market?

  A.  All buyers and sellers are utility maximizers. 

  B.  Buyers and sellers do not have knowledge of what every other buyer and seller is doing. 

  C.  Goods being sold in the market are extremely similar. 

  D.  No external parties regulate the price.

Question 15

Efficiency comes about in perfectly competitive free markets when __________.

A.  firms are motivated to invest resources in industries with a high consumer demand and move away from industries where demand is low 

B.  firms are encouraged to minimize the resources they consume to produce a commodity and to use the most efficient technologies 

C.  commodities are distributed among buyers such that buyers receive the most satisfying commodities they can purchase, given what is available to them and the amount they have to spend 

D.  all the above

Question 16

What is a horizontal merger?

A.  when a company unifies operations with its suppliers and distributors 

B.  when a company joins with another company in another market to cross-sell their goods 

C.  when two companies in the same market join together instead of competing 

D.  when a company splits into two to better specialize in their markets

Question 17

When do prices in perfectly competitive markets drive resources away?

A.  when demand is high 

B.  when demand is low 

C.  when there is a surplus of resources 

D.  when there is a shortage of resources

Question 18

What is the “network effect” barrier to entry into a market?

A.  when the value of a product goes down as the number of users increases 

B.  when a product becomes more difficult to supply as the number of users increases 

C.  when the value of a product goes up as the number of users increases 

D.  when the value of a product goes up as the number of users decreases

Question 19

When a company sells a buyer certain goods only on condition that the buyer also purchases other goods from the firm, this is known as __________.

A.  manipulation of supply 

B.  exclusive dealing arrangements 

C.  price discrimination 

D.  tying arrangement

Question 20

Which of the following is the term for a situation in which a firm only sells a certain good if the buyer purchases another good?

A.  tying arrangements 

B.  incentivization

C.  exclusive dealing arrangements 

D.  predatory price discrimination

Question 21

“If you cut down a tree, plant a tree” is an example of what?

A.  precautionary principle 

B.  conservation based on justice to future generations 

C.  ecocentrism

D.  anthropocentrism

Question 22

Current estimates suggest that to halt increase in levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, we would have to reduce emissions by what percentage?

A.  80-90% 

B.  10-20% 

C.  60-70% 

D.  5-10%

Question 23

What is Blackstone’s theory of environmental rights?

  A.  All organisms have a right to life, and we have a duty to protect their environment. 

  B.  Humans have a duty to ensure a livable environment because we each have a right to a livable environment. 

  C.  Environmental protection is necessary for the continuation of the species, and all other concerns are secondary. 

  D.  The only way to protect the environment is through political change.

Question 24

The undesirable and unintended contamination of the environment because of the manufacture or use of commodities is commonly referred to as __________.

A.  resource depletion 

B.  pollution

C.  degradation

D.  contamination

Question 25

Acid rain is caused by __________.  

A.  global warming 

B.  fossil fuels 

C.  airborne toxins 

D.  none of the above

Question 26

How much do the needs of future generations affect current prices?

  A.  They hardly affect current prices. 

  B.  They have some influence on current prices. 

  C.  Current prices are based upon the demand expected of future generations. 

  D.  They influence new market prices only.

Question 27

What is the term for the view that protecting the environment is important because it harms human beings?

A.  ecocentrism

B.  anthropocentrism

C.  exocentrism

D.  biocentrism

Question 28

When is the hole in the stratospheric ozone layer over the Antarctic expected to recover?

A.  between 2060 and 2075 

B.  between 2016 and 2020 

C.  between 2100 and 2200 

D.  never

Question 29

What is one reason why businesses were able to ignore their effects on the environment for so long?

  A.  Businesses tend to view the effects of their activities as negligible and ignore them. 

  B.  Governments had no way to stop them. 

  C.  Businesses did not know they were polluting. 

  D.  Businesses used bribes for many years as incentives to government to ignore the effects

Question 30

The saving or rationing of natural resources for later use is referred to as __________.

A.  evolution

B.  ecology

C.  planned deletion 

D.  conservation

Question 31

Which of the following can occur as a result of global warming?

A.  famine

B.  floods

C.  drought

D.  all of the above

Question 32

What is a good way for a business to determine the level of pollution control/removal?

  A.  Survey public opinion to find out what people think is a good amount. 

  B.  Consult with environmental scientists to determine the effects of the pollution. 

  C.  Do a cost-benefit analysis to determine the cost of removal versus benefits of removal. 

  D.  Remove all pollution, because zero pollution is achievable with enough cost.

Question 33

Each human generates __________ of garbage each day.

A.  45 pounds 

B.  14.5 pounds 

C.  4.5 pounds 

D.  none of the above

Question 34

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?  

A.  carbon dioxide 

B.  methane

C.  nitrogen

D.  nitrous oxide

Question 35

Why should we protect the environment, according to ecological ethics?

A.  for our future generations to enjoy 

B.  to prevent the depletion of our resources 

C.  for the sake of the environment itself 

D.  for the preservation of our species

Question 36

How does carbon dioxide contribute to global warming?

  A.  It is less dense, leaving less space in the atmosphere for oxygen. 

  B.  It absorbs heat from the sun, preventing it from escaping into space. 

  C.  It is created during combustion, which is an exothermic process that collectively heats up the earth. 

  D.  Carbon dioxide does not contribute to global warming.

Question 37

Because our environment is so complex and its parts are so interwoven, many theorists believe that our duty to protect the environment extends beyond the welfare of humans to other nonhuman parts of the system. This idea is called __________.

A.  ecological ethics or deep ecology 

B.  conservation ethics 

C.  survival ethics 

D.  none of the above

Question 38

Ozone depletion is a serious threat to our survival; which gases are extremely harmful to the ozone layer?

A.  carbon dioxide 

B.  nitrogen

C.  chlorofluorocarbons

D.  hydrocarbons

Question 39

How much natural gas is the Green Valley estimated to have?

A.  enough to support the entire world for a year 

B.  enough to support the entire world for 10 years 

C.  enough to support the entire nation for a year 

D.  enough to support the entire nation for a month

Question 40

What are the two main threats to the environment?

A.  first-world countries and capitalism 

B.  first-world countries and overpopulation 

C.  overpopulation and pollution 

D.  pollution and resource depletion

C06 Online Exam 7_10 SCORE 100 PERCENT

Question 1 of 40

In the market approach to consumer protection, what would lead to higher safety standards in consumer products?

A.  government regulation 

B.  inter-corporate agreements 

C.  foreign trade agreements 

D.  consumer demand

Question 2 of 40

What dubious advice does Credit Solutions initially give its clients?

A.  not to pay their credit cards 

B.  to sell off all of their fungible assets 

C.  to max out their credit cards 

D.  to pay off their mortgage with their credit card

Question 3 of 40

Psychological privacy is best described as __________.

A.  freedom from being questioned about our opinions and beliefs 

B.  the right to remain silent in a court of law 

C.  the right to own our ideas and inventions 

D.  freedom from having our personal thoughts and beliefs invaded

Question 4 of 40

Caveat emptor is a Latin phrase used to mean what in modern business?

A.  “The customer is always right.” 

B.  “You break it, you buy it.” 

C.  “Let the buyer beware.” 

D.  “Always be closing.”

Question 5 of 40

Research has shown people are irrational and inconsistent when weighing choices. Which of the following is NOT true regarding human risk assessment?

  A.  People tend to overestimate the danger posed by catastrophic but unlikely events, such as tornadoes. 

  B.  People pay too much attention to warning labels and other trivial information about a product. 

  C.  People are often blind to the real risks associated with commonplace activities, such as driving. 

  D.  All of the above

Question 6 of 40

Which of the following is considered a valid criticism of the contract view?

  A.  Government regulation hinders its effectiveness. 

  B.  The “invisible hand” of market forces makes it redundant. 

  C.  The view assumes that the buyer and seller are equally qualified to evaluate the product. 

  D.  Advertising effectively negates the validity of the contract.

Question 7 of 40

Under the theory of due care, under what conditions should the distribution of a product be strictly controlled?

A.  when selling to an international market 

B.  when the product is produced by a monopoly 

C.  when the product requires expertise to handle safely 

D.  all of the above

Question 8 of 40

The consumers who think ahead, consider, and watch every penny they spend, knowing how their choices will affect their preferences are known as __________.  

A.  irrational utility minimizers 

B.  rational utility maximizers 

C.  rational consumption maximizers 

D.  all the above

Question 9 of 40

Which view of customer protection is most opposed to government intervention?

A.  duty of care theory 

B.  social cost theory 

C.  market theory 

D.  communist theory

Question 10 of 40

The __________ theory of a business’s duties to consumers claims that a business has four main moral duties: the basic duty of (a. complying with the terms of the sales contract, and the secondary duties of (b. disclosing the nature of the product, (c. avoiding misrepresentation, and (d. avoiding the use of duress and undue influence.

A.  contractual

B.  commercial

C.  competitive

D.  consumptive

Question 11 of 40

A study by Consumer Reports found errors in what percent of the credit reports that it analyzed?

A.  less than 1% 

B.  11% 

C.  43% 

D.  nearly 100%

Question 12 of 40

Which of the following is NOT a significant challenge when exercising due care?

A.  determining what is an acceptable level of risk 

B.  informing customers of potential hazards 

C.  predicting all possible modes of product failure 

D.  determining which customers are able to safely use a product

Question 13 of 40

__________ is privacy with respect to a person’s inner life. This includes the person’s thoughts and plans, personal beliefs and values, feelings, and wants.

  A.  Physical privacy 

  B.  Psychological privacy 

  C.  Personal privacy 

  D.  Spiritual privacy

Question 14 of 40

Critics to the market approach respond that the benefits of free markets are obtained only when the markets have all of the seven defining characteristics. Which of the below is a defining characteristic?

A.  numerous buyers and sellers 

B.  unlimited access to and exit from the market 

C.  unregulated market 

D.  all the above

Question 15 of 40

Which of the following is NOT a necessary aspect of commercial advertising?

A.  addresses a mass audience 

B.  communicates to potential buyers 

C.  induces the purchase of a product or service 

D.  contains information about the product or service

Question 16 of 40

What is “market power?”

A.  the ability for free markets to self-regulate 

B.  the energy wasted through needless competition 

C.  the ability of large firms to use their assets to control a market 

D.  the ability of marketing campaigns to affect consumer desires 

Reset Selection

Question 17 of 40

Which of the following is NOT a strictly ethical criticism of advertising?

  A.  It can affect the consumer’s beliefs. 

  B.  It can manipulate the desires of children. 

  C.  It can use deception as a means of improving sales. 

  D.  It can venerate materialistic values.

Question 18 of 40

Some advertisements that are intended to manipulate consumers violate what right?

A.  the right to free speech 

B.  the consumer’s right to be treated as a free and equal rational being 

C.  the right to choose between competitors in a free market 

D.  the right to personal safety

Question 19 of 40

Which of the following is NOT a key component of the right to privacy?

A.  control over who is disclosing information about oneself 

B.  control over to whom information about oneself is disclosed 

C.  control over what information about oneself is disclosed 

D.  control over how much information about oneself is disclosed

Question 20 of 40

Which of the following is considered a valid challenge to the social cost view?

  A.  It allows consumers to sue manufacturers for their own clumsiness or incompetence. 

  B.  It encourages unsafe use of products in hopes of large settlements. 

  C.  It can be unfair to companies as it may punish them for unforeseeable effects. 

  D.  It can negatively impact insurance companies, driving them out of business.

Question 21 of 40

“It might be true that society as a whole would benefit by having some group discriminated against” is a/an __________ argument for discrimination.

  A.  Kantian 

  B.  Utilitarian 

  C.  Capitalist 

  D.  Communist

Question 22 of 40

Kant would argue that humans should be treated as ends in themselves and never as a means to an end. With respect to discrimination, this implies that people should be treated as what?

A.  equals

B.  property

C.  competitors

D.  family

Question 23 of 40

Since the jobs women have historically taken pay low wages and salaries, proponents of __________ programs attempt not to place women into higher paying jobs, but to increase the salaries of those jobs where women currently are employed.

A.  competitive value 

B.  competitive position 

C.  comparable worth 

D.  comparable equity

Question 24 of 40

With only a high school education, which group earned the least in 2008?

A.  whites

B.  women

C.  blacks

  D.  Hispanics

Question 25 of 40

What is an affirmative action program?  

A.  a program to increase employee morale and thereby improve utility 

B.  a program through which ethical behavior is recognized and rewarded 

C.  a program meant to correct imbalances in the demographics of a workforce 

D.  a program aimed to compensate individuals harmed by a product before they attempt to sue

Question 26 of 40

In 2008, what fraction of an average white salary did Hispanics earn in America?

  A.  They earned more than an average white salary. 

B.  96% 

C.  65% 

D.  12%

Question 27 of 40

What is meant by the term “glass ceiling?”

A.  a governmental program requiring upper management to be more transparent to their subordinates 

B.  the idea that lower level employees are always watching those above them 

C.  a metaphor for the fragility of the hierarchy of a large business 

D.  an invisible barrier that prevents advancement to women and minorities

Question 28 of 40

Which of the following is a utilitarian argument against discrimination?  

  A.  Discrimination leads to an inefficient use of human resources. 

  B.  Discrimination violates basic human rights. 

  C.  Discrimination results in an unjust distribution of society’s benefits and burdens. 

  D.  Discrimination violates the rule of free entry in a free market.

Question 29 of 40

Which is untrue of affirmative action?

  A.  It requires firms to only hire minorities and women until the ratio is correct. 

  B.  All businesses in America are required to participate in affirmative action. 

  C.  It requires that any layoffs target the majority population first. 

  D.  All of the above

Question 30 of 40

An argument against affirmative action plans is that criteria besides sex and race must be weighed when making job decisions because of which of the following?

  A.  Unqualified workers will be hired and productivity will go down. 

  B.  Jobs have a significant impact on life or health or the entire success of the company. 

  C.  It will turn us into a more racially and sexually conscious nation. 

  D.  Unqualified workers will be hired and productivity will go down, and it will also turn us into a more racially and sexually conscious nation.

Question 31 of 40

Which is a clear indication of discrimination?

  A.  A company preferentially hires new employees with graduate degrees. 

  B.  A disproportionate number of a certain group’s members hold less desirable positions despite their preferences and abilities. 

  C.  Promotions are given based solely on sales figures. 

  D.  A business owner promotes his son to a high-paying position in the company.

Question 32 of 40

Types of comparisons to provide evidence of discrimination are __________.

A.  comparisons of average benefits given to various groups 

B.  comparisons of the proportion of a group found in the lowest levels of the institution 

C.  comparisons of the proportion of a group found in the most advantageous positions in the institution 

D.  all the above

Question 33 of 40

Widely recognized categories of discriminatory practices include __________.

A.  recruitment practices that rely on the word-of-mouth referrals of present employees who tend to recruit only from the groups already represented 

B.  screening practices that include qualifications not relevant to a job 

C.  promotion practices that place groups on separate tracks or that rely solely on seniority when past discrimination has kept women or minorities out of senior positions 

D.  all the above

Question 34 of 40

Which of the following can be considered sexual harassment?

A.  requesting sexual favors 

B.  regular compliments on appearance 

C.  touching exposed skin or private areas 

D.  all of the above

Question 35 of 40

What was Roger Misiolek accused of?

A.  sex-based and race-based insults 

B.  physical violence 

C.  sexual harassment 

D.  all of the above

Question 36 of 40

Which is true of discrimination?

  A.  It must be intentional. 

  B.  It must have a negative impact. 

  C.  It must be individual. 

  D.  It must be direct.

Question 37 of 40

In 2008, which group had the largest portion of its population in poverty?

A.  whites

B.  blacks

  C.  Hispanics 

  D.  Asians

Question 38 of 40

Which of the following is most responsible for the wage gap between men and women?

A.  education

B.  absenteeism

C.  work experience 

D.  none of the above

Question 39 of 40

Who argued that it is unjust to give some people more opportunity than others?

  A.  Kant 

  B.  Rawls 

  C.  Marx 

  D.  Kohlberg

Question 40 of 40

Which occupation has the smallest proportion of women employed?

A.  social workers 

B.  lawyers

C.  pilots

D.  artists

C06 Online Exam 8_11 SCORE 90 Percent

Question 1 of 20

Whistle blowers are often punished how?

A.  directly, by their employers 

B.  indirectly, by future employers due to demonstrated lack of loyalty 

C.  indirectly, by their coworkers for the breach of confidence in the team 

D.  all of the above

Question 2 of 20

Potential conflicts of interest are likely to become unethical if the employee __________.

A.  has his or her judgment impaired by the conflict 

B.  discloses the conflict to his or her employer 

C.  resigns before damage is done 

D.  all of the above

Question 3 of 20

Which of the following is NOT necessary for fair working conditions?

A.  initiating affirmative action plans 

B.  studying and compensating for potential hazards 

C.  informing workers of potential risks 

D.  providing adequate medical and disability coverage

Question 4 of 20

What is “whistle blowing?”

A.  the attempt by an employee to disclose wrongdoing in an organization 

B.  sexual harassment 

C.  the legal requirement to audibly indicate the end of the normal work day 

D.  employees wasting company time

Question 5 of 20

Which of the following are NOT concerns to anyone working in the United States?

  A.  Labor markets may not be competitive or the job risks are not yet known. 

  B.  Workers might accept risks unknowingly because the worker doesn’t have access to the risk information. 

  C.  Workers might knowingly accept risks because they lack mobility to enter less risky industries. 

  D.  None of the above

Question 6 of 20

Which is NOT a consideration for determining a fair wage?

A.  risks involved with the work 

B.  age of the employee 

C.  skills needed for the work 

D.  local living costs

Question 7 of 20

Which organizational layer can be said to generate the broad policy decisions and direction for the firm?

A.  operating layer 

B.  middle management 

C.  top management 

D.  none of the above

Question 8 of 20

A firm’s main moral duty to its employees is to provide them with __________.

A.  a clean working environment 

B.  friendly supervisors 

C.  medical and dental insurance 

D.  fair wage and fair working conditions

Question 9 of 20

Which of the following is the primary ethical argument against insider trading?

  A.  Insiders have an unfair advantage over other traders. 

  B.  It directly harms the company. 

  C.  It is based on stolen information. 

  D.  It is illegal.

Question 10 of 20

In this view, the employee’s main moral duty is to work toward the goals of the firm. This view is referred to as __________.

A.  law of legitimacy 

B.  law of structure 

C.  law of agency 

D.  law of duty

Question 11 of 20

A political organization differs from a rational organization in what way?

  A.  There is a designed hierarchical organization. 

  B.  Alliances and coalitions form irrespective of organizational hierarchies. 

  C.  Salary is distributed equally between all levels of the organization. 

  D.  There is no difference.

Question 12 of 20

Which of the following is a likely positive effect of insider trading?

  A.  There is better employee retention. 

  B.  The company does not need to hire stockbrokers. 

  C.  Company secrets are less likely to be leaked. 

  D.  Stock prices better reflect their true value.

Question 13 of 20

Governments and large organizations share several features. Which of the following is NOT one?

  A.  Top managers wield considerable power over lower levels. 

  B.  Top managers have free access to the personal, private information of the lower levels. 

  C.  Top managers have recognized authority over lower levels. 

  D.  The policy makers have considerable control over the income, status, and freedom of the lower levels.

Question 14 of 20

Which organizational layer can be said to generate material goods and direct outputs of the firm?

A.  operating layer 

B.  middle management 

C.  top management 

D.  none of the above

Question 15 of 20

Which organizational layer can be said to form alliances and create conflicts of interest?

A.  operating layer 

B.  middle management (Incorrect)

C.  top management 

D.  none of the above

Question 16 of 20

A conflict of interest can arise when __________.

A.  an employee has a private interest in the outcome of a task in which they are engaged in that is possibly antagonistic to the firm’s interests  (Incorrect)

B.  an employee is failing to provide profit to the company due to personal issues 

C.  an employee has an interest outside the company substantial enough that it might affect the employee’s independent judgment on the firm’s behalf 

  D.  A and C 

E.  all of the above

Question 17 of 20

Which of the following is NOT a necessary condition for something to be considered information theft?

  A.  The owner must suffer in some way for the loss. 

  B.  The original information must be lost or damaged. 

  C.  The thief must not have legal access to the information. 

  D.  None of the above

Question 18 of 20

Awarding a contract in the hopes of improving your chances of getting a new job with the contracting company is likely an example of what?

A.  subjective conflict of interest 

B.  objective conflict of interest 

C.  commercial bribe 

D.  commercial Extortion

Question 19 of 20

Which of the following is a valid consideration for determining a fair wage?

A.  the firm’s profits 

B.  previous wage of the applicant 

C.  gender of the applicant 

D.  the nationality of the applicant

Question 20 of 20

Workers’ risks on the job in less developed countries are affected by __________.  

A.  labor markets that are not competitive or job risks not yet known 

B.  workers accepting risks unknowingly because the worker doesn’t have access to the risk information 

C.  workers knowingly accepting risks because they lack mobility to enter less risky industries 

D.  all of the above

ASSIGNMENT 04

C06I Business Ethics

Directions:  Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double-spaced pages; refer to the “Assignment Format” page located on the Course Home page for specific format requirements.

Respond to the items below.

1. Define the following: a right, a legal right, a moral right, a human right. How are they related?

2. What three (3) features define a moral right?

3. How do we know that people have rights? What is the basis of the moral rights according to a utilitarian view? According to Immanuel Kant?

4. Fully discuss the idea that human beings have a “natural right” to liberty and a “natural right” to private property, as claimed by John Locke (1632-1704).

ASSIGNMENT 08

C06I Business Ethics

Directions:  Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double-spaced pages; refer to the “Assignment Format” page located on the Course Home page for specific format requirements.

Respond to the items below.

1. What is traditional utilitarianism? With traditional utilitarianism, how do you determine what the moral thing to do on any particular occasion might be? Include mention of the four (4) considerations to determine what the moral thing to do on any particular occasion might be.

2. Why is utilitarianism attractive to many? Discuss three (3) reasons.

3. What is the ecological ethic?

4. How does utilitarianism support the ecological ethic?

C06 Week 1 Threaded Discussion

“Ethics has no place in business.” Discuss this statement

C06 Week 3 Threaded Discussion

“Locke’s views on property, Smith’s views on free markets, and Marx’s views on capitalism obviously do not hold true when applied to the organizational structure and the operations of modern corporations.” Comment on this statement.

C06 Week-5 Threaded Discussion

Discuss two of the main forms of pollution and resource depletion and identify the major problems associated with each form.

C06 Week 6 Threaded Discussion

Who should decide (a) how much information should be provided by manufacturers, (b) how good products should be, and (c) how truthful advertisements should be? The government? Manufacturers? Consumer groups? The free market? Explain your views.

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency