Grand Canyon University GCU Designate Superintend for Lower-Division Students


Lower-division tyros of Grand Canyon University (GCU) are demandd to use a fitness designate inveterate upon a simplified statement of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) for preparing written ordinances, negative where disagreeently exalted. In the concern of providing wealth symbolical for tyro use, this superintend to GCU designate and format has been exposed and made advantageous. A template has been supposing in the Tyro Success Center's Fitness Center for tyro download and use.

PLEASE NOTE: The curriculum symbolicals (Syllabus, Lectures, Resources, etc.) created and supposing by GCU in the ondirection or Web-enhanced modalities are skilful using an editorial format that relies on APA as a frameeffect but that modifies some format and formatting criteria to emend assist the species and intention of instructional symbolicals. Students and talent are advised that GCU sequence symbolicals do not unite strictly to APA format and should not be used as patterns of reform format when preparing written effect for class.

GCU Style


Academic fitness, which is fractions meditation befriended by reliable and bearing investigation, depends on the force to mix and select the beginnings that bear been consulted. Use GCU designate for all allusions, in-avenue avenues, formatting, etc. If this GCU Designate Superintend does not afford an pattern of a allusion music for a peculiar form of beginning, relate to the APA designate. The APA designate superintend can be disposed in the Tyro Success Center lower the Fitness Center. Beneficial sites and wealths can too be base at the GCU Library Citing Sources Investigation Superintend at http://libguides.gcu.edu/CitingSources.

Use one room succeeding punctuation marks at the end of a sentence. Transcribe in third-person object of light spontaneous disagreeently exalted. Use foremost- and second-person reservedly, if forever. This media, shun using I, we, and you; instead, use he, she, and they. Do not use contractions (e.g., it's, don't, should've).

The Fitness Process

Students should behove household delay “The Fitness Process” tutorial, disposed in the Tyro Success Center. This multimedia wealth walks tyros through the arrangement of fitness by explaining and demonstrating the construction, impressment, editing, alteration, and latestization of written monographs. It too affords estimable notification on the investigation arrangement, locating and citing beginnings, and how to annotation and use avenues. This is an inherent hireling tyros can use to improve their fitness and should be used in conjunction delay the GCU Designate Guide.

Paper Construction and Presentation

The government construction of a GCU designate monograph understands the monograph address, the matter, and allusions. However, tyros are demandd to thrive any peculiar straightforwardions attached in the syllabus or ordinance rubrics that may disagree from this government. Students can access a template for GCU Designate monograph format in the Tyro Success Center lower the Fitness Center. Students can transcribe aggravate the template instructions and be actual the monograph is in the fit, GCU designate format.

Paper Heading

The monograph address understands impure straightforwardions in the higher left-hand hole of the foremost page. The tyro's designate, the sequence enumerate, the limit of dependence, and the instructor's designate each transfer up their own straightforwardion. The gross monograph, including the address, matter, and allusions should be double-spaced.

An pattern monograph address would seem approve:

Figure 1 - Pattern of monograph address (muniment page lightpoint)


The matter allure comprehend all of the doer's ocean objects as well-mannered-mannered as constructive and munimented patronage for those purposes.

The spectry is centered on the straightforwardion succeeding the monograph address, in judicious caps. Relate to the GCU Designate Superintend Template for an pattern.

Due to the species of most tyro diatribes, there is not usually a insufficiency for minority addresss and subheadings (Introduction, Methods, Conclusion, etc.). If superintendlines are demandd or beneficial, secure there is a disentangled smash in the line of avenue and that the new address/subaddress is self-possessed to fault.


The References register affords the notification requisite for a decipherer to dispose and recaggravate any beginning selectd in the matter of the diatribe. The allusion register should be on a new page, unconnected from and thriveing the matter of the diatribe. Label this page References (delay no avenue marks, lowerlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page. The References page should be double-spaced equitable approve the repose of your diatribe.

References on the References page are confer-uponed accordant delay the thriveing:

· All straightforwardions succeeding the foremost straightforwardion of each minute in the allusion register should be intailed a half inch (0.5") from the left latitude. This is denominated relative dissolution.

· Authors' designates are inverted (definite designate foremost); furnish the definite designate and judiciouss for all doers of a detail effect.

· Allusion register entries should be alphabetized by the definite designate of the foremost doer of each effect.

· See the Allusion register minority and patterns in this muniment for details on peculiar conventions.

Preparing References and Citations for Sources Used in Papers

Citations are used to allusion symbolical from another beginning. Using avenues to furnish trustworthiness to others whose purposes or articulation you bear used is an inherent accomplishment to shun issues of plagiarism. Equitable as you would nforever purloin someone else's car, you should not purloin their articulation either. To shun virtual problems, frequently select your beginnings.

Common instruction does not insufficiency to be selectd. However, determining if a reality is vile instruction can be intricate, so when in hesitate, select the symbolical. Not fitly citing a wealth is plagiarism; delight relate to GCU's cunning on Plagiarism in the University Cunning Handbook.

In-Text Citations

When to Cite

All avenues, annotations, and summaries must be munimented delay an in-text-avenue and allusion music. In open, understand an in-avenue avenue forthbehind a while former or thriveing the adduce, annotation, or epitome used. GCU designate allows the transcriber to use one in-avenue avenue at the end of a condition when simply one beginning is used in that condition, uniform when multiple sentences bear been annotationd from the corresponding beginning.

How to In-Text Cite
Paraphrasing and Straightforward Quotes

When paraphrasing a beginning (fitness in your own articulation) the in-avenue avenues should understand the doer(s) definite designate and the proclamation limit in parentheses.

For a straightforward avenues (using three or further articulation in a row that are the corresponding as the beginning), avenues should understand doer(s), limit, and page enumerate(s) in parentheses.

If there is no doer, then the foremost few articulation of the spectry, enclosed in avenue marks, are used in the doer's assign, thriveed by the limit. If there is no limit, the abridgment "n.d." is used.

If a wealth has no page enumerate (as is frequently the instance in electronic wealths approve websites) and a straightforward adduce is used in avenue, manifest the condition enumerate where the adduce is disposed preceded by the abridgment "para."


· For paraphrasing: There are frequent concerns aggravate the application of the No Child Left atail act on open advice (Ornstein & Levine, 2008).

· For straightforward adduces: "Ethics examines well-conducted values and the governments of incorporeal behavior" (Ornstein & Levine, 2008, p. 162).

· For no doer: ("The Scientific Revolution", 2005)

· For no limit: (Jones, n.d.)

· For no page enumerate: ("Seventeen Moments in Soviet History," n.d., para. 2)

Sources Delay Multiple Authors

For a effect by two doers, select twain definite designates thriveed by year for forcomplete avenue. For a effect by three to five doers, select all definite designates thriveed by year on foremost allusion, and the foremost doer's definite designate thriveed by the abridgment "et al." and the year for later allusions (and page enumerates for straightforward avenues). For a effect by six or further doers, select definite designate of the foremost doer thriveed by the abridgment "et al." and the year on the foremost allusion and all later allusions.


· Two doers: (Walker & Allen, 2004)

· Three or further doers (foremost allusion): (Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

· Three or further doers (later allusions): (Bradley et al., 2006)

· Six or further doers (straightforward adduce): (Wasserstein et al., 2005, pp. 345-347)

Citing Induced Sources

Often, notification allure be base in a beginning that originated in another beginning. If this notification is desired for use in a monograph, it is higher to select the peculiar beginning rather than the induced beginning, as this is most straightforward and doeritative regularity of munimentation. Using induced beginnings should be shuned whenforever feasible as it can superintend to notification nature misrepresented or used out of treatment. However, there are seats where gaining the peculiar beginning is not trained or feasible, and so the induced beginning can be used.

When citing a induced beginning, fulfill the chief beginning and select the induced beginning preceded by "as selectd in." Delight music that the allusion music that would be understandd for this avenue on the References page would be for the induced beginning, but not the chief beginning owing the induced beginning was used when fitness the monograph.

The thriveing pattern represents a seat where an purpose in a compass by Wilson was selectd/quoted in an period by Anderson, the Anderson period was decipher (but not Wilson's compass), and annotationd in the monograph.


· Citing induced beginning: According to Wilson… (as selectd in Anderson, 2000).

· Music that the Anderson period would be registered on the References page

Citing the Bible

When relateencing the Bible, select the compass, individuality enumerate, and continuity enumerate(s) (starting and effect). The first epoch the Bible is selectd in the monograph, too understand the statement used. This classification of avenue for the Bible is qualified and demands no allusion music for the Bible on the References page.


· Citing the Bible, foremost allusion: Use compass, individuality, continuity, and statement (Luke 2:16-20 King James Version).

· Citing the Bible, later allusions: Use simply compass, individuality, and continuity (Luke 2:16-20).

Citing Singular Communications/Interviews/e-Mails/Letters

Like the Bible, singular despatchs are not registered on the References page, but as in-avenue avenues simply. The in-avenue avenue should understand the designate of the interviewee or doer of the despatch (foremost judiciouss and definite designate), the articulation "singular despatch," and the limit the despatch occurred.


· (A. E. Jones, singular despatch, October 24, 2002)

Citing GCU Sequence Dissertation Notes

When citing a GCU Dissertation Music in your monograph, use the spectry of the dissertation and the copyright limit for the in-avenue avenue.


· Citing a GCU Dissertation Note: Avenue would show in avenue approve this ("Lecture 1," 2013). The spectry in avenue marks is used instead of the doer owing dissertations in GCU sequences are not attributed to special doers; in this instance, the spectry moves into the foremost collocation in the in-avenue avenue and is enclosed in avenue marks.

Block Quotations

Direct avenues that comprehend 40 or further articulation from a beginning should be confer-uponed in "block" format, uninterruptedly intailed rather than delayin avenue marks, according to the thriveing peculiarations:

· Start a fill adduce on a new straightforwardion.

· Indent the complete adduced avenue fill 0.5 inches from the left latitude (in the corresponding collocation as a new condition)

· Do not use avenue marks environing the avenue fill.

· The parenthetical in-avenue avenue for a fill adduce is assignd beyond the latest punctuation of the adduced avenue.

· Fill adduces are double-spaced as are all other elements of the monograph.

In open, covet avenues requiring fill formatting should sometimes be used, normally not further than uninterruptedly in an academic monograph. Some monographs, especially those in which the question of disline is the dialect of a peculiar avenue (such as an separation diatribe on a effect of lore or the rationale of a court's sentence), may good from using covet straightforward adduces further frequently, but these should frequently be equitableified by sense of the adduced dialect in the tyros own articulation.

The thriveing pattern shows a abnormity of in-avenue avenues, including how to confer-upon and select a fill avenue.

An pattern condition delay a fill avenue would seem approve:

Figure 2 - Pattern of condition delay a fill avenue (muniment page lightpoint)

Reference List

When fitness, it is significant to muniment all beginnings delay as greatly fulfilling notification as feasible. This understands who wrote it, who published it, and where to discover it. Mind to gain and reach music of all of this notification during the investigation arrangement so that creating allusions for the monograph allure be easier when it is epoch to reach the allusions register. Too mind that it is emend to understand notification that is not demandd than to concession out requisite notification.

Reference Note/In-Text Avenue Rule

Each beginning selectd in the diatribe must show in the References register; approvewise, each minute in the References register must be selectd in the avenue of the diatribe.

Exceptions to this government understand the Bible (and other refined effects) and singular despatch, which are selectd in avenue (as explained overhead in the In-Text avenue minority) but do not demand a allusion on the allusions page.

Note Environing Electronic Resources

For most electronic wealths approve websites, electronic life periods, and electronic compasss, the URL or perpetual add is a demandd celebrate-akeep-apart of the allusion (though not understandd in the in-avenue avenue).

Reference Examples


Book by a Single Author


Author, A. A. (Year). Book spectry: Subspectry succeeding colon. Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.


Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the aider principalship: A trained superintend for new develop administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Book by Further Than One Author


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Book spectry: Subspectry succeeding colon. Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.


Black, J. A., & English, F. W. (1986). What they don't report you in develops of advice environing develop administration. Lancaster, PA: Technomic.

Edited Book


Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of effect. Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.


Feldman, P. R. (Ed.). (1997). British women poets of the wild era. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.

Chapter in a Book

Format — Print:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Spectry of individuality or minute. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of compass (pp. xxx-xxx). Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.

Example — Print:

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the understanding of questionive well-mannered-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The understanding of questionive well-mannered-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Format — Online:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Spectry of individuality or minute. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of compass (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

Example — Online:

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the understanding of questionive well-mannered-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The understanding of questionive well-mannered-being (pp. 17-43). Retrieved from http://www.science.com/ Philosophy and the understanding.pdf

eBook by a Single Author


Author, A. (Year). Book spectry. Retrieved from URL


Cosgrove, M. (2006). Foundations of Christian meditation. Retrieved from http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/kregel/2006/foundations-of-christian-thought_-faith-learning-and-the-christian-worldview_ebook_1e.php

Specific Edition of a Book


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of effect (xx ed.). Location, State Abbreviation: Publisher.


Parker, F., & Riley, K. (2004). Linguistics for non-linguists: A primer delay exercises (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Encyclopedia Minute Delay Doer and Editor — Online


Author, A. A. (Year). Minute spectry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Spectry of encyclopedia (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx


Lawrence, B. (1998). Transformation. In M. C. Talor (Ed.), Critical provisions for devout studies. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2F pursuit.credoreference.com.library.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fuchicagors%2Ftransformation%2F0

Encyclopedia Minute Delay No Doer or Editor — Online


Entry spectry. (Year). In Title of encyclopedia (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx


Christianity. (2003). In The Macmillan encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.library.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fmove%2Fchristianity%2F0

Dictionary Minute — Online


Entry spectry. (Year). In Title of wordbook (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx


Lord’s supplication. (2012). In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate wordbook. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?qurl=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.credoreference.com.library.gcu.edu%3A2048%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fmwcollegiate%2Flord_s_prayer%2F0

The Holy Bible

The Bible does not insufficiency to be registered on the allusion page, but it does insufficiency to be selectd in-text. (Refer to in-avenue avenue government.)


Article in a Journal— Print


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Spectry of period. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), Page enumerates.


Arnold, J. B., & Dodge, H. W. (1994). Room for all. The American Develop Board Journal, 181(10), 22-26.

Article in a Life — Online


Author, A. A. (Year). Spectry of period. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Page enumerates. Retrieved from URL or GCU Library perpetual add


Smith, B. M. (2004). What allure you do on summer recreation? Phi Delta Kappan, 85(10), 722. Retrieved from http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/k0406smi.htm

Dewsbury, G., & Ballard, D. (2014). The managerial costs of promote wheedle classifications. Nursing & Residential Care, 16(9), 512-515. Retrieved from http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=2012694989&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Article in a Magazine — Print


Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Period spectry. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx.


Mehta, P. B. (1998, June). Exploding myths. New Republic, 290(25), 17-19.

Article in a Magazine — Online


Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Period spectry. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). Retrieved from http://www.homepage


Clay, R. (2008, June). Understanding vs. ideology: Psychologists battle tail environing the abuse of investigation. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor

Article in a Newsmonograph — Print


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Period spectry. Newsmonograph Title, pp. xx, xx.


Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, collective foothold. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Article in Newsmonograph — Online


Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Period spectry. Newsmonograph Title. Retrieved from http://www.homepage.com


Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves celebrate brain lithe. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/health/11brod.html? pagewanted=all&_r=0

Electronic Resources

Stand-Alone Ondirection Muniment or Web Page, Delay Doer and Date


Author, A. A. (Year). Spectry of muniment or page. Retrieved from URL


Landis, B. (1996). Carlisle Indian Industrial Develop narrative.Retrieved from http://home.epix.net/~landis/histry.html

Stand-Alone Ondirection Muniment or Web Page, No Author


Title of page. (date). Retrieved from URL


TCA Abu Dhabi launches new Global Destination hostilities. (2016, November 1). Retrieved from http://www.uaeinteract.com/news/default3.asp?ID=20

GCU Class Dissertation Note

(Note: No URL is demandd for electronic wealths delayin a GCU sequence)


Lecture spectry. (Year). PREFIX-number: Spectry of Course. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.


Lecture 1. (2013). CWV-101: Christian Worldview. Phoenix, AZ: Grand Canyon University.


Motion Picture


Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of agitation delineate [Medium]. Country of Origin: Studio.


Ray, N. (Director). (1961). King of kings [Motion delineate]. USA: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Streaming/Ondirection Video


Userdesignate of poster. (Year). Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL


TEDTalks. (2009). Dan Pink: The conundrum of motivation [Video perfect]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y&list=TL6Fgq-xG7Qz3nCXTBIjTRc-OesA3gzFp-



Band/Artist. (Copyright year). Spectry of lyric. On Title of album [Medium of proceedingsing: CD, proceedings, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label.


Switchfoot. (2014). When we end alert. On Fading west [CD]. United States: Atlantic Records.



Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of artwork [Medium of artwork: Painting, carving, photograph, picturesque, etc.]. Retrieved from URL


Richardson, J. (n.d.). Venice, Italy [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/top-10/iconic-places-photograph/#/iconic-venice-grand-canal-photography_51470_600x450.jpg

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